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      Molecular Basis of Sotos Syndrome

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          Abstract

          This paper describes the isolation of a novel human gene, NSD1, from the 5q35 breakpoint of t(5;8)(q35; q24.1) in a patient with Sotos syndrome, and NSD1 mutation analysis. Of 112 (95 Japanese and 17 non-Japanese) patients analyzed, 16 (14%) had a heterozygous NSD1 point mutation (10 protein truncation types and six missense types) and 50 (45%) a ∼0.7-Mb microdeletion involving NSD1. The results indicated that haploinsufficiency of NSD1 is the major cause of Sotos syndrome, and NSD1 plays a role in growth and brain development in humans. Detailed clinical examinations provided a genotype-phenotype correlation in Sotos syndrome, i.e. in patients with deletions, overgrowth is less obvious and mental retardation is more severe than in those with point mutations, and major anomalies were exclusively seen in the former. The results also indicated that Sotos syndrome due to a deletion falls into a contiguous gene syndrome, while Sotos syndrome due to an NSD1 point mutation is a single gene defect, occasionally with an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance. The genomic structure around the deleted and flanking regions revealed the presence of two sets of low copy repeats through which the microdeletion in Sotos syndrome is mediated.

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          Most cited references 19

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          Genome architecture, rearrangements and genomic disorders.

          An increasing number of human diseases are recognized to result from recurrent DNA rearrangements involving unstable genomic regions. These are termed genomic disorders, in which the clinical phenotype is a consequence of abnormal dosage of gene(s) located within the rearranged genomic fragments. Both inter- and intrachromosomal rearrangements are facilitated by the presence of region-specific low-copy repeats (LCRs) and result from nonallelic homologous recombination (NAHR) between paralogous genomic segments. LCRs usually span approximately 10-400 kb of genomic DNA, share >or= 97% sequence identity, and provide the substrates for homologous recombination, thus predisposing the region to rearrangements. Moreover, it has been suggested that higher order genomic architecture involving LCRs plays a significant role in karyotypic evolution accompanying primate speciation.
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            Haploinsufficiency of NSD1 causes Sotos syndrome.

            We isolated NSD1 from the 5q35 breakpoint in an individual with Sotos syndrome harboring a chromosomal translocation. We identified 1 nonsense, 3 frameshift and 20 submicroscopic deletion mutations of NSD1 among 42 individuals with sporadic cases of Sotos syndrome. The results indicate that haploinsufficiency of NSD1 is the major cause of Sotos syndrome.
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              CEREBRAL GIGANTISM IN CHILDHOOD. A SYNDROME OF EXCESSIVELY RAPID GROWTH AND ACROMEGALIC FEATURES AND A NONPROGRESSIVE NEUROLOGIC DISORDER.

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                HRE
                Horm Res Paediatr
                10.1159/issn.1663-2818
                Hormone Research in Paediatrics
                S. Karger AG
                978-3-8055-7833-2
                978-3-318-01154-8
                1663-2818
                1663-2826
                2004
                October 2004
                17 November 2004
                : 62
                : Suppl 3
                : 60-65
                Affiliations
                aDepartment of Human Genetics, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki; bCREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Kawaguchi, Japan
                Article
                80501 Horm Res 2004;62(suppl 3):60–65
                10.1159/000080501
                15539801
                © 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 5, Tables: 2, References: 19, Pages: 6
                Categories
                Advances in Dysmorphology

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