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      Interactions between hydatid cyst and regulated cell death may provide new therapeutic opportunities Translated title: Les interactions entre kyste hydatique et mort cellulaire régulée peuvent ouvrir de nouvelles perspectives thérapeutiques

      1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , * , 5 , 6 , **

      Parasite

      EDP Sciences

      Echinococcosis, Hydatid cyst, Regulated cell death, Apoptosis, Necrosis, Autophagy

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          Abstract

          Cystic echinococcosis and alveolar echinococcosis are chronic zoonotic infections, transmitted throughout the world. Development of the cestode larval stages in the liver and lungs causes damage to intermediate hosts, including humans. Several pathways leading to the suppression of host immune response and the survival of the cysts in various hosts are known. Immune response modulation and regulated cell death (RCD) play a fundamental role in cyst formation, development and pathogenesis. RCD, referring to apoptosis, necrosis and autophagy, can be triggered either via intrinsic or extrinsic cell stimuli. In this review, we provide a general overview of current knowledge on the process of RCD during echinococcosis. The study of interactions between RCD and Echinococcus spp. metacestodes may provide in-depth understanding of echinococcosis pathogenesis and open new horizons for human intervention and treatment of the disease.

          Translated abstract

          L’échinococcose kystique et l’échinococcose alvéolaire sont des infections zoonotiques chroniques, transmises dans le monde entier. Le développement des stades larvaires des cestodes dans le foie et les poumons provoque des lésions chez les hôtes intermédiaires, y compris les humains. Plusieurs voies menant à la suppression de la réponse immunitaire de l’hôte et à la survie des kystes chez divers hôtes sont connues. La modulation de la réponse immunitaire et la mort cellulaire régulée (MCR) jouent un rôle fondamental dans la formation, le développement et la pathogenèse du kyste. La MCR, faisant référence à l’apoptose, à la nécrose et à l’autophagie, peut être déclenchée par des stimuli intrinsèques ou extrinsèques. Dans cette revue, nous fournissons un aperçu général des connaissances actuelles sur le processus de la MCR au cours de l’échinococcose. L’étude des interactions entre les métacestodes d’ Echinococcus spp. et la MCR pourrait permettre d’approfondir la compréhension de la pathogénie et d’ouvrir de nouveaux horizons pour l’intervention humaine et le traitement de l’échinococcose.

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          Most cited references 64

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          The role of inflammation in depression: from evolutionary imperative to modern treatment target.

          Crosstalk between inflammatory pathways and neurocircuits in the brain can lead to behavioural responses, such as avoidance and alarm, that are likely to have provided early humans with an evolutionary advantage in their interactions with pathogens and predators. However, in modern times, such interactions between inflammation and the brain appear to drive the development of depression and may contribute to non-responsiveness to current antidepressant therapies. Recent data have elucidated the mechanisms by which the innate and adaptive immune systems interact with neurotransmitters and neurocircuits to influence the risk for depression. Here, we detail our current understanding of these pathways and discuss the therapeutic potential of targeting the immune system to treat depression.
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            Necroptosis and its role in inflammation.

            Regulated cell death has essential functions in development and in adult tissue homeostasis. Necroptosis is a newly discovered pathway of regulated necrosis that requires the proteins RIPK3 and MLKL and is induced by death receptors, interferons, toll-like receptors, intracellular RNA and DNA sensors, and probably other mediators. RIPK1 has important kinase-dependent and scaffolding functions that inhibit or trigger necroptosis and apoptosis. Mouse-model studies have revealed important functions for necroptosis in inflammation and suggested that it could be implicated in the pathogenesis of many human inflammatory diseases. We discuss the mechanisms regulating necroptosis and its potential role in inflammation and disease.
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              Echinococcosis: Advances in the 21st Century

              SUMMARY Echinococcosis is a zoonosis caused by cestodes of the genus Echinococcus (family Taeniidae). This serious and near-cosmopolitan disease continues to be a significant public health issue, with western China being the area of highest endemicity for both the cystic (CE) and alveolar (AE) forms of echinococcosis. Considerable advances have been made in the 21st century on the genetics, genomics, and molecular epidemiology of the causative parasites, on diagnostic tools, and on treatment techniques and control strategies, including the development and deployment of vaccines. In terms of surgery, new procedures have superseded traditional techniques, and total cystectomy in CE, ex vivo resection with autotransplantation in AE, and percutaneous and perendoscopic procedures in both diseases have improved treatment efficacy and the quality of life of patients. In this review, we summarize recent progress on the biology, epidemiology, diagnosis, management, control, and prevention of CE and AE. Currently there is no alternative drug to albendazole to treat echinococcosis, and new compounds are required urgently. Recently acquired genomic and proteomic information can provide a platform for improving diagnosis and for finding new drug and vaccine targets, with direct impact in the future on the control of echinococcosis, which continues to be a global challenge.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Parasite
                Parasite
                parasite
                Parasite
                EDP Sciences
                1252-607X
                1776-1042
                2019
                29 November 2019
                : 26
                : ( publisher-idID: parasite/2019/01 )
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Immunology Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences 5166/15731 Tabriz Iran
                [2 ] Student Research Committee, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences 5166/15731 Tabriz Iran
                [3 ] Malaria Research Unit, SMITh, ICBMS, UMR 5246 CNRS INSA CPE University Lyon 69100 Lyon France
                [4 ] Institute of Parasitology and Medical Mycology, Croix-Rousse Hospital, Hospices Civils de Lyon 69004 Lyon France
                [5 ] Infectious and Tropical Diseases Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences 5166/15731 Tabriz Iran
                [6 ] Department of Parasitology and Mycology, Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences 5166/15731 Tabriz Iran
                Author notes
                Article
                parasite180136 10.1051/parasite/2019070
                10.1051/parasite/2019070
                6884020
                31782727
                © S.M. Moghaddam et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2019

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 1, Equations: 0, References: 59, Pages: 6
                Categories
                Review Article

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