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      Dickkopf 4 Alone and in Combination with Leucyl-tRNA Synthetase as a Good Prognostic Biomarker for Human Colorectal Cancer


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          The prognosis of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) is affected by invasion and metastasis. Leucyl-tRNA synthetase (LARS) was shown to be related to the growth and migration of lung cancer cells. Dickkopf 4 (DKK4) is known as a Wnt/ β-catenin pathway inhibitor, and its upregulation was reported in several cancers. However, the clinical significance of LARS and DKK4 in human CRC has not been clearly defined. We investigated the expression of LARS and DKK4 by immunohistochemical staining in tissue microarrays from 642 primary CRC patients and analyzed the relationship between their expression and the clinicopathological characteristics of CRC patients. LARS and DKK4 expressions were not related to gender, age at surgery, histologic grade, size, tumor location, tumor invasion, or metastasis, but LARS expression was significantly correlated with TNM stage, N stage, and lymph node metastasis. DKK4 expression was inversely related to the TNM stage and N stage. Survival analysis demonstrated that the OS and DFS in the LARS high expression group were not different compared to the LARS low expression group. OS and DFS in the DKK4 high expression group were significantly higher than in the DKK4 low expression group. In addition, OS and DFS in the group with the combination of the LARS high/DKK4 low expression were significantly lower than in the LARS high/DKK4 high expression group. The low expression of DKK4 alone can be used as a predictor of relapse in CRC patients. In addition, DKK4 low expression in the case of LARS high expression can be used as a poor prognostic factor in CRC patients. Thus, our findings suggest that DKK4 alone or in combination with LARS at diagnosis may be a useful prognostic factor for CRC.

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          Cancer statistics, 2019

          Each year, the American Cancer Society estimates the numbers of new cancer cases and deaths that will occur in the United States and compiles the most recent data on cancer incidence, mortality, and survival. Incidence data, available through 2015, were collected by the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program; the National Program of Cancer Registries; and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries. Mortality data, available through 2016, were collected by the National Center for Health Statistics. In 2019, 1,762,450 new cancer cases and 606,880 cancer deaths are projected to occur in the United States. Over the past decade of data, the cancer incidence rate (2006-2015) was stable in women and declined by approximately 2% per year in men, whereas the cancer death rate (2007-2016) declined annually by 1.4% and 1.8%, respectively. The overall cancer death rate dropped continuously from 1991 to 2016 by a total of 27%, translating into approximately 2,629,200 fewer cancer deaths than would have been expected if death rates had remained at their peak. Although the racial gap in cancer mortality is slowly narrowing, socioeconomic inequalities are widening, with the most notable gaps for the most preventable cancers. For example, compared with the most affluent counties, mortality rates in the poorest counties were 2-fold higher for cervical cancer and 40% higher for male lung and liver cancers during 2012-2016. Some states are home to both the wealthiest and the poorest counties, suggesting the opportunity for more equitable dissemination of effective cancer prevention, early detection, and treatment strategies. A broader application of existing cancer control knowledge with an emphasis on disadvantaged groups would undoubtedly accelerate progress against cancer.
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            Comprehensive Molecular Characterization of Human Colon and Rectal Cancer

            Summary To characterize somatic alterations in colorectal carcinoma (CRC), we conducted genome-scale analysis of 276 samples, analyzing exome sequence, DNA copy number, promoter methylation, mRNA and microRNA expression. A subset (97) underwent low-depth-of-coverage whole-genome sequencing. 16% of CRC have hypermutation, three quarters of which have the expected high microsatellite instability (MSI), usually with hypermethylation and MLH1 silencing, but one quarter has somatic mismatch repair gene mutations. Excluding hypermutated cancers, colon and rectum cancers have remarkably similar patterns of genomic alteration. Twenty-four genes are significantly mutated. In addition to the expected APC, TP53, SMAD4, PIK3CA and KRAS mutations, we found frequent mutations in ARID1A, SOX9, and FAM123B/WTX. Recurrent copy number alterations include potentially drug-targetable amplifications of ERBB2 and newly discovered amplification of IGF2. Recurrent chromosomal translocations include fusion of NAV2 and WNT pathway member TCF7L1. Integrative analyses suggest new markers for aggressive CRC and important role for MYC-directed transcriptional activation and repression.
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              The Wnt signaling pathway in development and disease.

              Tight control of cell-cell communication is essential for the generation of a normally patterned embryo. A critical mediator of key cell-cell signaling events during embryogenesis is the highly conserved Wnt family of secreted proteins. Recent biochemical and genetic analyses have greatly enriched our understanding of how Wnts signal, and the list of canonical Wnt signaling components has exploded. The data reveal that multiple extracellular, cytoplasmic, and nuclear regulators intricately modulate Wnt signaling levels. In addition, receptor-ligand specificity and feedback loops help to determine Wnt signaling outputs. Wnts are required for adult tissue maintenance, and perturbations in Wnt signaling promote both human degenerative diseases and cancer. The next few years are likely to see novel therapeutic reagents aimed at controlling Wnt signaling in order to alleviate these conditions.

                Author and article information

                Biomed Res Int
                Biomed Res Int
                BioMed Research International
                15 April 2023
                : 2023
                : 9057735
                1Department of Biochemistry, Dong-A University College of Medicine, 32, Daesingongwon-ro, Seo-gu, Busan 49201, Republic of Korea
                2Department of Translational Biomedical Sciences, Graduate School, Dong-A University, 32, Daesingongwon-ro, Seo-gu, Busan 49201, Republic of Korea
                3Peripheral Neuropathy Center, Dong-A University, 32, Daesingongwon-ro, Seo-gu, Busan 49201, Republic of Korea
                4Department of Preventive Medicine, Dong-A University College of Medicine, 32, Daesingongwon-ro, Seo-gu, Busan 49201, Republic of Korea
                5Department of Pathology, Dong-A University College of Medicine, 32, Daesingongwon-ro, Seo-gu, Busan 49201, Republic of Korea
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Xiang-Sheng Fu

                Author information
                Copyright © 2023 Su-Jeong Park et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                : 11 August 2022
                : 28 March 2023
                : 31 March 2023
                Funded by: National Research Foundation of Korea
                Award ID: 2017R1A2B4011428
                Award ID: 2016R1A5A2007009
                Research Article


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