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      Casticin Improves Respiratory Dysfunction and Attenuates Oxidative Stress and Inflammation via Inhibition of NF-ĸB in a Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Model of Chronic Cigarette Smoke-Exposed Rats

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          Abstract

          Objective

          The present study was conducted to elucidate the protective effect of Casticin against chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in rats.

          Methods

          The COPD in rats was induced by the controlled cigarette smoke, and CST (10, 20, and 30 mg/kg) was injected into the cigarette-smoke exposed rats. Blood was taken from the abdominal vein and centrifuged (1500×g, 4°C, 15min); plasma was collected and used for the determination of various biochemical parameters.

          Results

          The results of the study suggested that CST significantly improved the lung functions of the rats in a dose-dependent manner. It also causes a reduction of white blood cells, neutrophils, and macrophages in BALF of rats. The plasma level of leptin and C-reactive protein together with pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6) were also significantly restored to near to normal in CST-treated group. In Western blot analysis, CST causes significant inhibition of the NF-ĸB and iNOS pathway.

          Conclusion

          Our study demonstrated that the CST protects lungs against COPD via improving lung functions and inhibition of oxidative stress and inflammation.

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          Most cited references 52

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          Immunology of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

           Peter Barnes (2008)
          Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are both obstructive airway diseases that involve chronic inflammation of the respiratory tract, but the type of inflammation is markedly different between these diseases, with different patterns of inflammatory cells and mediators being involved. As described in this Review, these inflammatory profiles are largely determined by the involvement of different immune cells, which orchestrate the recruitment and activation of inflammatory cells that drive the distinct patterns of structural changes in these diseases. However, it is now becoming clear that the distinction between these diseases becomes blurred in patients with severe asthma, in asthmatic subjects who smoke and during acute exacerbations. This has important implications for the development of new therapies.
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            Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

            Summary Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterised by progressive airflow obstruction that is only partly reversible, inflammation in the airways, and systemic effects or comorbities. The main cause is smoking tobacco, but other factors have been identified. Several pathobiological processes interact on a complex background of genetic determinants, lung growth, and environmental stimuli. The disease is further aggravated by exacerbations, particularly in patients with severe disease, up to 78% of which are due to bacterial infections, viral infections, or both. Comorbidities include ischaemic heart disease, diabetes, and lung cancer. Bronchodilators constitute the mainstay of treatment: β2 agonists and long-acting anticholinergic agents are frequently used (the former often with inhaled corticosteroids). Besides improving symptoms, these treatments are also thought to lead to some degree of disease modification. Future research should be directed towards the development of agents that notably affect the course of disease.
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              Intracellular signalling pathways activated by leptin.

              Leptin is a versatile 16 kDa peptide hormone, with a tertiary structure resembling that of members of the long-chain helical cytokine family. It is mainly produced by adipocytes in proportion to fat size stores, and was originally thought to act only as a satiety factor. However, the ubiquitous distribution of OB-R leptin receptors in almost all tissues underlies the pleiotropism of leptin. OB-Rs belong to the class I cytokine receptor family, which is known to act through JAKs (Janus kinases) and STATs (signal transducers and activators of transcription). The OB-R gene is alternatively spliced to produce at least five isoforms. The full-length isoform, OB-Rb, contains intracellular motifs required for activation of the JAK/STAT signal transduction pathway, and is considered to be the functional receptor. Considerable evidence for systemic effects of leptin on body mass control, reproduction, angiogenesis, immunity, wound healing, bone remodelling and cardiovascular function, as well as on specific metabolic pathways, indicates that leptin operates both directly and indirectly to orchestrate complex pathophysiological processes. Consistent with leptin's pleiotropic role, its participation in and crosstalk with some of the main signalling pathways, including those involving insulin receptor substrates, phosphoinositide 3-kinase, protein kinase B, protein kinase C, extracellular-signal-regulated kinase, mitogen-activated protein kinases, phosphodiesterase, phospholipase C and nitric oxide, has been observed. The impact of leptin on several equally relevant signalling pathways extends also to Rho family GTPases in relation to the actin cytoskeleton, production of reactive oxygen species, stimulation of prostaglandins, binding to diacylglycerol kinase and catecholamine secretion, among others.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                dddt
                dddt
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove
                1177-8881
                17 November 2020
                2020
                : 14
                : 5019-5027
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Key Laboratory of Shenzhen Respiratory Disease, Shenzhen Institute of Respiratory Disease, Shenzhen People’s Hospital (The First Affiliated Hospital of Southern University of Science and Technology, The Second Clinical Medical College of Jinan University) , Shenzhen, Guangdong, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Jie Li; Rongchang Chen Key Laboratory of Shenzhen Respiratory Disease, Shenzhen Institute of Respiratory Disease, Shenzhen People’s Hospital (The First Affiliated Hospital of Southern University of Science and Technology, The Second Clinical Medical College of Jinan University) , Shenzhen, Guangdong, People’s Republic of China Email ljszry2018@126.com; chenrc@vip.163.com
                Article
                277126
                10.2147/DDDT.S277126
                7680168
                © 2020 Li et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 7, References: 52, Pages: 9
                Funding
                This work was supported by the NSFC (grant number: 81770028); the Key Laboratory of Shenzhen Respiratory Disease (grant number: ZDSYS201504301616234) and the Clinical research of Shenzhen Municipal Health and Family Planning Commission (grant number: SZLY2017024). This work also was supported by special funding for high-level disciplines from the Shenzhen Institute of Respiratory Diseases.
                Categories
                Original Research

                Pharmacology & Pharmaceutical medicine

                oxidative stress, nf-ĸb, smoke, inflammation, copd, casticin

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