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      Baicalein attenuates the quorum sensing-controlled virulence factors of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and relieves the inflammatory response in P. aeruginosa-infected macrophages by downregulating the MAPK and NFκB signal-transduction pathways

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          Abstract

          Burgeoning antibiotic resistance and unfavorable outcomes of inflammatory injury after Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection have necessitated the development of novel agents that not only target quorum sensing (QS) but also combat inflammatory injury with the least risk of resistance. This study aimed to assess the anti-QS and anti-inflammatory activities of baicalein, a traditional herbal medicine that is widely used in the People’s Republic of China, against P. aeruginosa infection. We found that subminimum inhibitory concentrations of baicalein efficiently interfered with the QS-signaling pathway of P. aeruginosa via downregulation of the transcription of QS-regulated genes and the translation of QS-signaling molecules. This interference resulted in the global attenuation of QS-controlled virulence factors, such as motility and biofilm formation, and the secretion into the culture supernatant of extracellular virulence factors, including pyocyanin, LasA protease, LasB elastase, and rhamnolipids. Moreover, we examined the anti-inflammatory activity of baicalein and its mode of action via a P. aeruginosa-infected macrophage model to address its therapeutic effect. Baicalein reduced the P. aeruginosa-induced secretion of the inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and TNFα. In addition, baicalein suppressed P. aeruginosa-induced activation of the MAPK and NFκB signal-transduction pathways in cocultured macrophages; this may be the mechanism by which baicalein inhibits the production of proinflammatory cytokines. Therefore, our study demonstrates that baicalein represents a potential treatment for P. aeruginosa infection because it clearly exhibits both antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities.

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          Most cited references 48

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          Innate immune recognition: mechanisms and pathways.

          The innate immune system is an evolutionarily ancient form of host defense found in most multicellular organisms. Inducible responses of the innate immune system are triggered upon pathogen recognition by a set of pattern recognition receptors. These receptors recognize conserved molecular patterns shared by large groups of microorganisms. Recognition of these patterns allows the innate immune system not only to detect the presence of an infectious microbe, but also to determine the type of the infecting pathogen. Pattern recognition receptors activate conserved host defense signaling pathways that control the expression of a variety of immune response genes.
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            Identification and characterization of genes for a second anthranilate synthase in Pseudomonas aeruginosa: interchangeability of the two anthranilate synthases and evolutionary implications.

             D Essar,  L Eberly,  A Hadero (1990)
            Two anthranilate synthase gene pairs have been identified in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. They were cloned, sequenced, inactivated in vitro by insertion of an antibiotic resistance gene, and returned to P. aeruginosa, replacing the wild-type gene. One anthranilate synthase enzyme participates in tryptophan synthesis; its genes are designated trpE and trpG. The other anthranilate synthase enzyme, encoded by phnA and phnB, participates in the synthesis of pyocyanin, the characteristic phenazine pigment of the organism. trpE and trpG are independently transcribed; homologous genes have been cloned from Pseudomonas putida. The phenazine pathway genes phnA and phnB are cotranscribed. The cloned phnA phnB gene pair complements trpE and trpE(G) mutants of Escherichia coli. Homologous genes were not found in P. putida PPG1, a non-phenazine producer. Surprisingly, PhnA and PhnB are more closely related to E. coli TrpE and TrpG than to Pseudomonas TrpE and TrpG, whereas Pseudomonas TrpE and TrpG are more closely related to E. coli PabB and PabA than to E. coli TrpE and TrpG. We replaced the wild-type trpE on the P. aeruginosa chromosome with a mutant form having a considerable portion of its coding sequence deleted and replaced by a tetracycline resistance gene cassette. This resulted in tryptophan auxotrophy; however, spontaneous tryptophan-independent revertants appeared at a frequency of 10(-5) to 10(6). The anthranilate synthase of these revertants is not feedback inhibited by tryptophan, suggesting that it arises from PhnAB. phnA mutants retain a low level of pyocyanin production. Introduction of an inactivated trpE gene into a phnA mutant abolished residual pyocyanin production, suggesting that the trpE trpG gene products are capable of providing some anthranilate for pyocyanin synthesis.
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              Inorganic polyphosphate is needed for swimming, swarming, and twitching motilities of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

               A Kornberg,  M. Rashid (2000)
              Polyphosphate kinase (PPK), encoded by the ppk gene, is the principal enzyme in many bacteria for the synthesis of inorganic polyphosphate (poly P) from ATP. A knockout mutant in the ppk gene of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 is impaired in flagellar swimming motility on semisolid agar plates. The mutant is deficient in type IV pili-mediated twitching motility and in a "swarming motility" previously unobserved in P. aeruginosa. In swarming cultures, the polar monotrichous bacteria have differentiated into elongated and polar multitrichous cells that navigate the surface of solid media. All of the motility defects in the ppk mutant could be complemented by a plasmid harboring the ppk gene. Because bacterial motility is often crucial for their survival in a natural environment and for systemic infection inside a host, the dependence for motility on PPK reveals important roles for poly P in diverse processes such as biofilm formation, symbiosis, and virulence.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                1177-8881
                2016
                07 January 2016
                : 10
                : 183-203
                Affiliations
                Department of Respiratory Disease, First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Yi-qiang Chen, Department of Respiratory Disease, First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, 6 Shuangyong Road, Qingxiu, Nanning, Guangxi 530021, People’s Republic of China, Tel/fax +86 771 535 0993, Email chenyq2013@ 123456sohu.com
                [*]

                These authors contributed equally to this work

                Article
                dddt-10-183
                10.2147/DDDT.S97221
                4708194
                © 2016 Luo et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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                Original Research

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