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Tetrahymena thermophila contains a conventional γ-tubulin that is differentially required for the maintenance of different microtubule-organizing centers

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      Most cited references 53

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      A new method called the neighbor-joining method is proposed for reconstructing phylogenetic trees from evolutionary distance data. The principle of this method is to find pairs of operational taxonomic units (OTUs [= neighbors]) that minimize the total branch length at each stage of clustering of OTUs starting with a starlike tree. The branch lengths as well as the topology of a parsimonious tree can quickly be obtained by using this method. Using computer simulation, we studied the efficiency of this method in obtaining the correct unrooted tree in comparison with that of five other tree-making methods: the unweighted pair group method of analysis, Farris's method, Sattath and Tversky's method, Li's method, and Tateno et al.'s modified Farris method. The new, neighbor-joining method and Sattath and Tversky's method are shown to be generally better than the other methods.
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        CLUSTAL W: improving the sensitivity of progressive multiple sequence alignment through sequence weighting, position-specific gap penalties and weight matrix choice.

        The sensitivity of the commonly used progressive multiple sequence alignment method has been greatly improved for the alignment of divergent protein sequences. Firstly, individual weights are assigned to each sequence in a partial alignment in order to down-weight near-duplicate sequences and up-weight the most divergent ones. Secondly, amino acid substitution matrices are varied at different alignment stages according to the divergence of the sequences to be aligned. Thirdly, residue-specific gap penalties and locally reduced gap penalties in hydrophilic regions encourage new gaps in potential loop regions rather than regular secondary structure. Fourthly, positions in early alignments where gaps have been opened receive locally reduced gap penalties to encourage the opening up of new gaps at these positions. These modifications are incorporated into a new program, CLUSTAL W which is freely available.
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          Nucleation of microtubule assembly by a gamma-tubulin-containing ring complex.

          The highly conserved protein gamma-tubulin is required for microtubule nucleation in vivo. When viewed in the electron microscope, a highly purified gamma-tubulin complex from Xenopus consisting of at least seven different proteins is seen to have an open ring structure. This complex acts as an active microtubule-nucleating unit which can cap the minus ends of microtubules in vitro.

            Author and article information

            Department of Biology, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627
            Author notes

            Address correspondence to Martin Gorovsky, Dept. of Biology, University of Rochester, Hutchinson #425, Rochester, NY 14627. Tel.: (585) 275-6988. Fax: (585) 275-2070. E-mail: goro@

            J Cell Biol
            The Journal of Cell Biology
            The Rockefeller University Press
            30 September 2002
            : 158
            : 7
            : 1195-1206
            Copyright © 2002, The Rockefeller University Press

            Cell biology

            γ-tubulin; basal body; centrin; mtoc; tetrahymena


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