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      An overview of brominated flame retardants in the environment

      Chemosphere

      Elsevier BV

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          Measuring and Estimating the Bioconcentration Factor of Chemicals in Fish

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            Potent competitive interactions of some brominated flame retardants and related compounds with human transthyretin in vitro.

            Brominated flame retardants such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), pentabromophenol (PBP), and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) are produced in large quantities for use in electronic equipment, plastics, and building materials. Because these compounds have some structural resemblance to the thyroid hormone thyroxine (T(4)), it was suggested that they may interfere with thyroid hormone metabolism and transport, e.g., by competition with T(4) on transthyretin (TTR). In the present study, we investigated the possible interaction of several brominated flame retardants with T(4) binding to TTR in an in vitro competitive binding assay, using human TTR and 125 I-T(4) as the displaceable radioligand. Compounds were tested in at least eight different concentrations ranging from 1.95 to 500 nM. In addition, we investigated the structural requirements of these and related ligands for competitive binding to TTR. We were able to show very potent competition binding for TBBPA and PBP (10.6- and 7.1-fold stronger than the natural ligand T(4), respectively). PBDEs were able to compete with T(4)-TTR binding only after metabolic conversion by induced rat liver microsomes, suggesting an important role for hydroxylation. Brominated bisphenols with a high degree of bromination appeared to be more efficient competitors, whereas chlorinated bisphenols were less potent compared to their brominated analogues. These results indicate that brominated flame retardants, especially the brominated phenols and tetrabromobisphenol A, are very potent competitors for T(4) binding to human transthyretin in vitro and may have effects on thyroid hormone homeostasis in vivo comparable to the thyroid-disrupting effects of PCBs.
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              Influence of the consumption of fatty Baltic Sea fish on plasma levels of halogenated environmental contaminants in Latvian and Swedish men.

              We examined the influence of widely varied consumption of fatty fish from the Baltic Sea and of age on plasma concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorobiphenylols (OH-PCBs), 2, 2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane (4,4'-DDT), 2, 2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethane (4,4'-DDE), 2,2',4, 4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and pentachlorophenol (PCP) in Latvian and Swedish men. Both age and fish consumption were significantly correlated with the concentrations of [sigman]PCB, [sigman]OH-PCB, 4,4'-DDE, 4,4'-DDT, and HCB. In the case of BDE-47, no significant relationship with age was observed, and fish consumption had the largest relative effect on plasma concentrations of this contaminant. This relationship may be a result of exposure to BDE-47 having been more recent than that of PCBs and DDE, or because the half-life of BDE-47 may be shorter than that of PCB and DDE. Latvian men demonstrated higher plasma levels of DDE and DDT but lower levels of [sigman]PCB and PCP than did Swedish men. The corresponding levels of HCB and BDE-47 were similar in both countries. The Spearman's rank correlation coefficient obtained by comparing the level of the metabolite 4-hydroxy-2,3,3',4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (4-OH-CB107) to the combined levels of its parent compounds, 2,3,3',4, 4'-pentachlorobiphenyl (CB-105) and 2,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (CB-118), was higher than the median correlation coefficient obtained upon comparing the level of this metabolite to all other possible combinations of two PCB levels. No other increased correlation between metabolite and parent PCB concentration was observed.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Chemosphere
                Chemosphere
                Elsevier BV
                00456535
                February 2002
                February 2002
                : 46
                : 5
                : 583-624
                Article
                10.1016/S0045-6535(01)00225-9
                © 2002

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