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      Liberalizing the killing of endangered wolves was associated with more disappearances of collared individuals in Wisconsin, USA

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          Abstract

          Although poaching (illegal killing) is an important cause of death for large carnivores globally, the effect of lethal management policies on poaching is unknown for many populations. Two opposing hypotheses have been proposed: liberalizing killing may decrease poaching incidence (‘tolerance hunting’) or increase it (‘facilitated poaching’). For gray wolves in Wisconsin, USA, we evaluated how five causes of death and disappearances of monitored, adult wolves were influenced by policy changes. We found slight decreases in reported wolf poaching hazard and incidence during six liberalized killing periods, but that was outweighed by larger increases in hazard and incidence of disappearance. Although the observed increase in the hazard of disappearance cannot be definitively shown to have been caused by an increase in cryptic poaching, we discuss two additional independent lines of evidence making this the most likely explanation for changing incidence among n = 513 wolves’ deaths or disappearances during 12 replicated changes in policy. Support for the facilitated poaching hypothesis suggests the increase (11–34%) in disappearances reflects that poachers killed more wolves and concealed more evidence when the government relaxed protections for endangered wolves. We propose a refinement of the hypothesis of ‘facilitated poaching’ that narrows the cognitive and behavioral mechanisms underlying wolf-killing.

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          Most cited references 38

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          Recovery of large carnivores in Europe's modern human-dominated landscapes.

          The conservation of large carnivores is a formidable challenge for biodiversity conservation. Using a data set on the past and current status of brown bears (Ursus arctos), Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx), gray wolves (Canis lupus), and wolverines (Gulo gulo) in European countries, we show that roughly one-third of mainland Europe hosts at least one large carnivore species, with stable or increasing abundance in most cases in 21st-century records. The reasons for this overall conservation success include protective legislation, supportive public opinion, and a variety of practices making coexistence between large carnivores and people possible. The European situation reveals that large carnivores and people can share the same landscape. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
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            Applying Cox regression to competing risks.

            Two methods are given for the joint estimation of parameters in models for competing risks in survival analysis. In both cases Cox's proportional hazards regression model is fitted using a data duplication method. In principle either method can be used for any number of different failure types, assuming independent risks. Advantages of the augmented data approach are that it limits over-parametrisation and it runs immediately on existing software. The methods are used to reanalyse data from two well-known published studies, providing new insights.
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              Hunting for large carnivore conservation

               Adrian Treves (2009)
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                santiagoavil@wisc.edu
                Journal
                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
                2045-2322
                17 August 2020
                17 August 2020
                2020
                : 10
                Affiliations
                [1 ]GRID grid.14003.36, ISNI 0000 0001 2167 3675, Nelson Institute for Environmental Studies, , University of Wisconsin – Madison, ; Madison, USA
                [2 ]GRID grid.14003.36, ISNI 0000 0001 2167 3675, Department of Biostatistics & Medical Informatics, , University of Wisconsin – Madison, ; Madison, USA
                Article
                70837
                10.1038/s41598-020-70837-x
                7431570
                © The Author(s) 2020

                Open AccessThis article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

                Funding
                Funded by: Nelson Institute for Environmental Studies
                Funded by: Therese Foundation, Inc.
                Funded by: UCLA Law School Animal Law
                Categories
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                © The Author(s) 2020

                Uncategorized

                conservation biology, environmental impact

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