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      Visual Snow: A Case Series from Israel

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          Our aim was to examine the symptoms and clinical characteristics of visual snow in a group of 6 patients from a Department of Ophthalmology and a Department of Neurology. Visual snow is now recognized as a true physiological disorder. Previously, physicians unaware of this syndrome may have misinterpreted its symptoms as a persistent visual aura. By promoting awareness of this syndrome, greater quantitative and qualitative research may expand our understanding and treatment of this disorder.

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          Most cited references 4

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          Evidence of dysfunction in the visual association cortex in visual snow syndrome

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            Antagonistic relationship between VEP potentiation and gamma power in visual snow syndrome

             S. LUNA,  D Lai,  A. Harris (2018)
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              Primary headache disorders and neuro-ophthalmologic manifestations

               Daniel Schwartz (corresponding) ,  Matthew S Robbins (2012)
              Headache is an extraordinarily common complaint presenting to medical practitioners in all arenas and specialties, particularly primary care physicians, neurologists, and ophthalmologists. A wide variety of headache disorders may manifest with a myriad of neuro-ophthalmologic symptoms, including orbital pain, disturbances of vision, aura, photophobia, lacrimation, conjunctival injection, ptosis, and other manifestations. The differential diagnosis in these patients is broad and includes both secondary, or symptomatic, and primary headache disorders. Awareness of the headache patterns and associated symptoms of these various disorders is essential to achieve the correct diagnosis. This paper reviews the primary headache disorders that prominently feature neuro-ophthalmologic manifestations, including migraine, the trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias, and hemicrania continua. Migraine variants with prominent neuro-ophthalmologic symptoms including aura without headache, basilar-type migraine, retinal migraine, and ophthalmoplegic migraine are also reviewed. This paper focuses particularly on the symptomatology of these primary headache disorders, but also discusses their epidemiology, clinical features, and treatment.

                Author and article information

                Case Reports in Ophthalmology
                S. Karger AG
                May – August 2020
                09 June 2020
                : 11
                : 2
                : 205-211
                aDepartment of Ophthalmology, Hillel Yaffe Medical Center, Hadera, Israel
                bDepartment of Neurology, Hillel Yaffe Medical Center, Hadera, Israel
                cSackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel
                dDivision of Headache and Neuro-Ophthalmology, Moran Eye Center, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA
                Author notes
                *Eran Berkowitz, Department of Ophthalmology, Hillel Yaffe Medical Center, 10 Hashalom Street, Hadera 38100 (Israel), eran.berko@gmail.com
                508602 PMC7315196 Case Rep Ophthalmol 2020;11:205–211
                © 2020 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel

                This article is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC). Usage and distribution for commercial purposes requires written permission. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Tables: 2, Pages: 7
                Case Report

                Vision sciences, Ophthalmology & Optometry, Pathology

                Nyctalopia, Palinopsia, Photophobia, Visual snow


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