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      IRX1 influences peritoneal spreading and metastasis via inhibiting BDKRB2-dependent neovascularization on gastric cancer

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          Abstract

          The overexpression of IRX1 gene correlates with the growth arrest in gastric cancer. Furthermore, overexpression of IRX1 gene suppresses peritoneal spreading and long distance metastasis. To explore the precise mechanisms, we investigated whether restoring IRX1 expression affects the angiogenesis or vasculogenic mimicry (VM). Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and chick embryo and SGC-7901 gastric cancer cells were used for angiogenesis and VM analysis. Small interfering RNA was used for analyzing the function of BDKRB2, a downstream target gene of IRX1. As results, the remarkable suppression on peritoneal spreading and pulmonary metastasis of SGC-7901 cells by IRX1 transfectant correlates to reduced angiogenesis as well as VM formation. Using the supernatant from SGC-7901/ IRX1 cells, we found a strong inhibiting effect on angiogenesis both in vitro and in chick embryo. SGC-7901/ IRX1 cells revealed strong inhibiting effect on VM formation too. By gene-specific RNA interference for BDKRB2, or its effector PAK1, we got an effective inhibition on tube formation, cell proliferation, cell migration and invasion in vitro. In conclusion, enforcing IRX1 expression effectively suppresses peritoneal spreading and pulmonary metastasis via anti-angiogenesis and anti-VM mechanisms, in addition to previously found cell growth and invasion. BDKRB2 and its downstream effector might be potential targets for anti-cancer strategy.

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          Most cited references47

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          Vascular channel formation by human melanoma cells in vivo and in vitro: vasculogenic mimicry.

          Tissue sections from aggressive human intraocular (uveal) and metastatic cutaneous melanomas generally lack evidence of significant necrosis and contain patterned networks of interconnected loops of extracellular matrix. The matrix that forms these loops or networks may be solid or hollow. Red blood cells have been detected within the hollow channel components of this patterned matrix histologically, and these vascular channel networks have been detected in human tumors angiographically. Endothelial cells were not identified within these matrix-embedded channels by light microscopy, by transmission electron microscopy, or by using an immunohistochemical panel of endothelial cell markers (Factor VIII-related antigen, Ulex, CD31, CD34, and KDR[Flk-1]). Highly invasive primary and metastatic human melanoma cells formed patterned solid and hollow matrix channels (seen in tissue sections of aggressive primary and metastatic human melanomas) in three-dimensional cultures containing Matrigel or dilute Type I collagen, without endothelial cells or fibroblasts. These tumor cell-generated patterned channels conducted dye, highlighting looping patterns visualized angiographically in human tumors. Neither normal melanocytes nor poorly invasive melanoma cells generated these patterned channels in vitro under identical culture conditions, even after the addition of conditioned medium from metastatic pattern-forming melanoma cells, soluble growth factors, or regimes of hypoxia. Highly invasive and metastatic human melanoma cells, but not poorly invasive melanoma cells, contracted and remodeled floating hydrated gels, providing a biomechanical explanation for the generation of microvessels in vitro. cDNA microarray analysis of highly invasive versus poorly invasive melanoma tumor cells confirmed a genetic reversion to a pluripotent embryonic-like genotype in the highly aggressive melanoma cells. These observations strongly suggest that aggressive melanoma cells may generate vascular channels that facilitate tumor perfusion independent of tumor angiogenesis.
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            Hypoxia stimulates pancreatic stellate cells to induce fibrosis and angiogenesis in pancreatic cancer.

            Pancreatic cancer is characterized by excessive desmoplastic reaction and by a hypoxic microenvironment within the solid tumor mass. Chronic pancreatitis is also characterized by fibrosis and hypoxia. Fibroblasts in the area of fibrosis in these pathological settings are now recognized as activated pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs). Recent studies have suggested that a hypoxic environment concomitantly exists not only in pancreatic cancer cells but also in surrounding PSCs. This study aimed to clarify whether hypoxia affected the cell functions in PSCs. Human PSCs were isolated and cultured under normoxia (21% O(2)) or hypoxia (1% O(2)). We examined the effects of hypoxia and conditioned media of hypoxia-treated PSCs on cell functions in PSCs and in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Hypoxia induced migration, type I collagen expression, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production in PSCs. Conditioned media of hypoxia-treated PSCs induced migration of PSCs, which was inhibited by anti-VEGF antibody but not by antibody against hepatocyte growth factor. Conditioned media of hypoxia-treated PSCs induced endothelial cell proliferation, migration, and angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. PSCs expressed several angiogenesis-regulating molecules including VEGF receptors, angiopoietin-1, and Tie-2. In conclusion, hypoxia induced profibrogenic and proangiogenic responses in PSCs. In addition to their established profibrogenic roles, PSCs might play proangiogenic roles during the development of pancreatic fibrosis, where they are subjected to hypoxia.
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              Tumor cell plasticity in Ewing sarcoma, an alternative circulatory system stimulated by hypoxia.

              A striking feature of Ewing sarcoma is the presence of blood lakes lined by tumor cells. The significance of these structures, if any, is unknown. Here, we report that the extent of blood lakes correlates with poor clinical outcomes, whereas variables of angiogenesis do not. We also show that Ewing sarcoma cells form vessel-like tubes in vitro and express genes associated with vasculogenic mimicry. In tumor models, we show that there is blood flow through the blood lakes, suggesting that these structures in Ewing sarcoma contribute to the circulation. Furthermore, we present evidence that reduced oxygen tension may be instrumental in tube formation by plastic tumor cells. The abundant presence of these vasculogenic structures, in contrast to other tumor types, makes Ewing sarcoma the ideal model system to study these phenomena. The results suggest that optimal tumor treatment may require targeting of these structures in combination with prevention of angiogenesis.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Oncogene
                Oncogene
                Nature Publishing Group
                0950-9232
                1476-5594
                03 November 2011
                23 May 2011
                : 30
                : 44
                : 4498-4508
                Affiliations
                [1 ]simpleDepartment of Surgery, Shanghai Ruijin Hospital and Shanghai Institute of Digestive Surgery, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Diagnosis and Treatment for Gastric Cancer, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, School of Medicine , Shanghai, China
                Author notes
                [* ]simpleDpartment of Surgery, Ruijin Hospital and Shanghai Institute of Digestive Surgery, ShanghaiJiao Tong University, School of Medicine , Ruijin er Road, No. 197, Shanghai 200025, PR China. E-mail: yingyan3y@ 123456yahoo.com.cn or surgeryzhu@ 123456yahoo.com.cn
                [2]

                These authors contributed equally to this work.

                Article
                onc2011154
                10.1038/onc.2011.154
                3208739
                21602894
                fdc89ce3-5742-4e33-a5c4-dda3ebc0037d
                Copyright © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited

                This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 Unported License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/

                Categories
                Original Article

                Oncology & Radiotherapy
                vasculogenic mimicry,angiogenesis,bdkrb2,irx1,gastric carcinoma
                Oncology & Radiotherapy
                vasculogenic mimicry, angiogenesis, bdkrb2, irx1, gastric carcinoma

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