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      Do Better ImageNet Models Transfer Better... for Image Recommendation ?

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          Abstract

          Visual embeddings from Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) trained on the ImageNet dataset for the ILSVRC challenge have shown consistently good performance for transfer learning and are widely used in several tasks, including image recommendation. However, some important questions have not yet been answered in order to use these embeddings for a larger scope of recommendation domains: a) Do CNNs that perform better in ImageNet are also better for transfer learning in content-based image recommendation?, b) Does fine-tuning help to improve performance? and c) Which is the best way to perform the fine-tuning? In this paper we compare several CNN models pre-trained with ImageNet to evaluate their transfer learning performance to an artwork image recommendation task. Our results indicate that models with better performance in the ImageNet challenge do not always imply better transfer learning for recommendation tasks (e.g. NASNet vs. ResNet). Our results also show that fine-tuning can be helpful even with a small dataset, but not every fine-tuning works. Our results can inform other researchers and practitioners on how to train their CNNs for better transfer learning towards image recommendation systems.

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          Learning and Transferring Mid-level Image Representations Using Convolutional Neural Networks

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            Deep Convolutional Neural Networks for Computer-Aided Detection: CNN Architectures, Dataset Characteristics and Transfer Learning

            Remarkable progress has been made in image recognition, primarily due to the availability of large-scale annotated datasets and the revival of deep CNN. CNNs enable learning data-driven, highly representative, layered hierarchical image features from sufficient training data. However, obtaining datasets as comprehensively annotated as ImageNet in the medical imaging domain remains a challenge. There are currently three major techniques that successfully employ CNNs to medical image classification: training the CNN from scratch, using off-the-shelf pre-trained CNN features, and conducting unsupervised CNN pre-training with supervised fine-tuning. Another effective method is transfer learning, i.e., fine-tuning CNN models pre-trained from natural image dataset to medical image tasks. In this paper, we exploit three important, but previously understudied factors of employing deep convolutional neural networks to computer-aided detection problems. We first explore and evaluate different CNN architectures. The studied models contain 5 thousand to 160 million parameters, and vary in numbers of layers. We then evaluate the influence of dataset scale and spatial image context on performance. Finally, we examine when and why transfer learning from pre-trained ImageNet (via fine-tuning) can be useful. We study two specific computer-aided detection (CADe) problems, namely thoraco-abdominal lymph node (LN) detection and interstitial lung disease (ILD) classification. We achieve the state-of-the-art performance on the mediastinal LN detection, with 85% sensitivity at 3 false positive per patient, and report the first five-fold cross-validation classification results on predicting axial CT slices with ILD categories. Our extensive empirical evaluation, CNN model analysis and valuable insights can be extended to the design of high performance CAD systems for other medical imaging tasks.
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              Convolutional Neural Networks for Medical Image Analysis: Full Training or Fine Tuning?

              Training a deep convolutional neural network (CNN) from scratch is difficult because it requires a large amount of labeled training data and a great deal of expertise to ensure proper convergence. A promising alternative is to fine-tune a CNN that has been pre-trained using, for instance, a large set of labeled natural images. However, the substantial differences between natural and medical images may advise against such knowledge transfer. In this paper, we seek to answer the following central question in the context of medical image analysis: \emph{Can the use of pre-trained deep CNNs with sufficient fine-tuning eliminate the need for training a deep CNN from scratch?} To address this question, we considered 4 distinct medical imaging applications in 3 specialties (radiology, cardiology, and gastroenterology) involving classification, detection, and segmentation from 3 different imaging modalities, and investigated how the performance of deep CNNs trained from scratch compared with the pre-trained CNNs fine-tuned in a layer-wise manner. Our experiments consistently demonstrated that (1) the use of a pre-trained CNN with adequate fine-tuning outperformed or, in the worst case, performed as well as a CNN trained from scratch; (2) fine-tuned CNNs were more robust to the size of training sets than CNNs trained from scratch; (3) neither shallow tuning nor deep tuning was the optimal choice for a particular application; and (4) our layer-wise fine-tuning scheme could offer a practical way to reach the best performance for the application at hand based on the amount of available data.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                25 July 2018
                Article
                1807.09870
                fddddde8-0c98-40ed-825a-e57febf5ceb3

                http://arxiv.org/licenses/nonexclusive-distrib/1.0/

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                Custom metadata
                Submitted to DLRS Workshop co-located at RecSys
                cs.IR cs.LG

                Information & Library science,Artificial intelligence
                Information & Library science, Artificial intelligence

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