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      Management of intracranial meningiomas in Enugu, Nigeria

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          Meningiomas may range on presentation from incidentally identified small lesions to large symptomatic tumors in eloquent areas of the brain. Management options correspondingly vary and include careful observation, surgical excision, and palliative application of very limited therapeutic maneuvers in select cases. This paper discusses the options and difficulties in the management of meningiomas in a developing country.


          This study is a retrospective analysis of prospectively recorded data of patients managed for intracranial meningioma between January 2006 and September 2011 at Memfys Hospital for Neurosurgery, Enugu. Radiographic diagnosis of meningioma was based on computed tomography (CT) and or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) criteria in all cases, but only patients who had surgery and a histological diagnosis were analyzed.


          Seventy-four patients were radiographically diagnosed with intracranial meningioma over the period under review. Fifty-five patients were operated upon and 52 (70.3%) with histological diagnosis of meningioma were further analyzed. Histological diagnosis was complete in 42 (56.8%) patients and in 10 (13.5%) patients the subtype of meningioma was not determined. The male to female ratio was 1:1.08. The peak age range for females was in the 6th decade and for males in the 5th decade. The locations were olfactory groove (26.9%), convexity (21.2%), parasagittal/falx (19.2%), sphenoid ridge (15.4%), tuberculum sellae (7.7%), tentorial (3.8%), and posterior fossa (5.8%). The most common clinical presentation was headaches in 67.3% followed by seizures (40.4%) and visual impairment (38.5%). Histology was benign (World Health Organization [WHO] grade 1) in 39 patients. One patient harbored an atypical and two had anaplastic tumors. Gross total resection of the tumor was achieved in 41 patients. Surgical mortality was 3.9%.


          Effective management of meningioma depends largely on adequate and complete surgical resection and results in good outcomes. Adequate preoperative assessment, including visual assessment, and hormonal assessment in olfactory groove and sphenoid region meningiomas, is necessary.

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          The recurrence of intracranial meningiomas after surgical treatment.

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            The WHO classification of tumors of the nervous system.

            The new World Health Organization (WHO) classification of nervous system tumors, published in 2000, emerged from a 1999 international consensus conference of neuropathologists. New entities include chordoid glioma of the third ventricle, cerebellar liponeurocytoma, atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor, and perineurioma. Several histological variants were added, including tanycytic ependymoma, large cell medulloblastoma, and rhabdoid meningioma. The WHO grading scheme was updated and, for meningiomas, extensively revised. In recognition of the emerging role of molecular diagnostic approaches to tumor classification, genetic profiles have been emphasized, as in the distinct subtypes of glioblastoma and the already clinically useful 1p and 19q markers for oligodendroglioma and 22q/INI1 for atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors. In accord with the new WHO Blue Book series, the actual classification is accompanied by extensive descriptions and illustrations of clinicopathological characteristics of each tumor type, including molecular genetic features, predictive factors, and separate chapters on inherited tumor syndromes. The 2000 WHO classification of nervous system tumors aims at being used and implemented by the neuro-oncology and biomedical research communities worldwide.
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              Atypical and anaplastic meningiomas: prognostic implications of clinicopathological features.

              To evaluate patient outcome and investigate the prognostic factors of high-grade meningiomas by adopting the 2000 World Health Organization (WHO) classification system. Between 1986 and 2004, 74 patients were diagnosed with high-grade meningioma: 33 with atypical and 41 with anaplastic meningioma. The mean follow-up was 58.5 months. We reclassified all surgical specimens, according to the 2000 WHO classification system, using two expert neuropathologists. Forty of 74 meningiomas were reclassified as atypical meningioma and 24 as anaplastic meningioma. Overall and recurrence-free survivals were significantly longer in patients with atypical than in those with anaplastic meningioma: 142.5 versus 39.8 months and 138.5 versus 32.2 months, respectively (p<0.001). In patients with atypical meningiomas, brain invasion and adjuvant radiotherapy were not associated with survival; however, in the brain invasion subgroup, adjuvant radiotherapy improved patients' survival. In patients with anaplastic meningioma, the prognostic factors were brain invasion, adjuvant radiotherapy, malignant progression, p53 overexpression and extent of resection. The p53 overexpression was the only factor associated with malignant progression (p = 0.009). The 2000 WHO classification has identified the truly aggressive meningiomas better than did the previous criteria. A precise meningioma grading system may help to avoid over-treatment of patients with an atypical meningioma as, once the tumour has "declared itself" by recurrence and histological features, it becomes a tumour that is poorly amenable to current therapies.

                Author and article information

                Surg Neurol Int
                Surg Neurol Int
                Surgical Neurology International
                Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd (India )
                28 September 2012
                : 3
                Department of Neurosurgery, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria
                [1 ]Department of Neurosurgery, Memfys Hospital for Neurosurgery, Enugu, Nigeria
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author
                Copyright: © 2012 Mezue WC.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Original Article


                outcome, intracranial meningioma, tumors, management


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