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      Controversies and Issues in Hemodiafiltration Therapy

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          Hemodiafiltration appears to be the most effective technique of renal replacement therapy but several drawbacks are not counterbalanced by significant advantages. Although optimal transfer for both small and middle molecules can be achieved, there is no difference in mortality risk between HDF and HD patients. The infusion of a large amount of dialysate containing residual acetate of 2–7 mmol/l could lead to impaired cardiac contractile functions and carbonyl stress whereas loss of amino acids and water-soluble vitamins along with high UF rate could lead to malnutrition. Moreover, as substitution fluid is prepared on-line, contaminated fluid could be inadvertently infused to patients. Stringent maintenance rules are required for the production of sterile and non-pyrogenic dialysis solutions. Finally, daily hemodialysis could be the most promising mode of renal replacement therapy since it leads to a more stable ‘milieu interieur’ than other techniques whatever the mode of solutes removal when performed three times a week.

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          Convective and diffusive losses of vitamin C during haemodiafiltration session: a contributive factor to oxidative stress in haemodialysis patients.

          Enhanced oxidative stress in haemodialysis (HD) patients may be considered as a risk factor for accelerated atherosclerosis. Reduced antioxidant defences include impairment in enzyme activities and decreased plasma levels of hydrophilic vitamin C (vit C), and cellular levels of lipophilic vitamin E (vit E). We investigated plasma levels of vit C in 19 patients undergoing regular haemodiafiltration (HDF) (mean age 62+/-7 years) and in 1846 healthy elderly subjects (HS) (mean age 69+/-5 years). The contribution of convection and diffusion was determined using paired filtration dialysis (PFD), a modified HDF technique which physically separates convective from diffusive fluxes. Blood samples were collected before and after the HDF session; in addition at 60 min of HDF, samples were drawn from arterial lines (AL) and venous lines (VL), dialysate (D) and ultrafiltrate (UF). Blood levels of total vit C were determined using an HPLC fluorescence method. Markers of oxidative stress were also assessed in both populations as follows: levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) were determined by fluorometric assay, measurements of advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity were performed by spectrophotometric assay, and plasma vit E content was obtained by an HPLC procedure. A significant reduction in plasma vit C level was observed in HDF patients when compared with HS (1.6+/-1.4 microg/ml in HDF vs 6.6+/-3.7 microg/ml in HS; P<0.01). The HDF session was associated with a dramatic reduction in vit C levels (1.87+/-1.57 microg/ml before HDF and 0.98+/-0.68 microg/ml after HDF); at 60 min of HDF, concentrations were as follows: AL=1.35+/-1.27 microg/ml; VL=0.37+/-0.31 microg/ml, D=0.40+/-0.34 microg/ml, UF=1.24+/-1.18 microg/ml; corresponding to a diffusive flux of 271 microg/min and a convective flux of 126 microg/min. Total loss of vit C could be assessed at 66 mg/session (8--230 mg/session). According to this loss of vit C, presence of an oxidative stress was demonstrated in HD population as shown by a significant increase in MDA (1.66+/-0.27 microM in HD vs 0.89+/-0.25 microM in HS; P<0.01) and AOPP (77.5+/-29.3 microM in HD vs 23.5+/-13.2 microM in HS; P<0.01) levels, and a decrease in GSH-Px activity (259.2+/-106.3 U/l in HD vs 661.2+/-92.2 U/l in HS; P<0.01). No change in plasma vit E between both populations (30.7+/-9.1 microM in HD vs 35.3+/-7.34 microM in HS) was observed. These results suggest that HDF with highly permeable membranes is associated with a significant loss of vit C. Diffusive transport is responsible for two-thirds whereas convective phenomenon accounts for only one-third of this loss.
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            Change from three times a week on-line hemodiafiltration to short daily on-line hemodiafiltration.

            Daily dialysis has shown excellent clinical results because a higher frequency of dialysis is more physiologic. On-line hemodiafiltration (OL-HDF) is a HDF technique that combines diffusion with high convection in which the dialysis fluid itself is used as a reinfusion solution. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the beneficial effect of the more effective dialysis schedule (daily dialysis) with the dialysis modality that offers the highest uremic toxin removal (on-line HDF). Eight patients, six males and two females, on standard 4 to 5 hours three times a week OL-HDF (S-OL-HDF) were switched to daily OL-HDF (D-OL-HDF) 2 to 21/2 hours six times per week. Dialysis parameters were identical during both periods and only frequency and dialysis time of each session were changed. Tolerance, uremic toxin removal, urea kinetics, biochemical and anemia profiles, blood pressure, and left ventricular hypertrophy were evaluated. D-OL-HDF was well accepted and tolerated. The disappearance of postdialysis fatigue was rapidly reported by patients. Patients mantained the same [time average concentration (TAC) and weekly single-pool Kt/V (spKt/V)] throughout the study. However, equivalent renal urea clearance (EKR), standard Kt/V and weekly urea reduction ratio (URR) were increased during D-OL-HDF. Weekly urea, creatinine, osteocalcin, beta2-microglobulin, myoglobin, and prolactin reduction ratios were improved with D-OL-HDF. There was a significant decrease in predialysis plasma levels of urea, creatinine, acid uric, beta2-microglobulin and homocysteine over 6 months. Phosphate binders were reduced and antihypertensive drugs were stopped. A 30% regression of left ventricular mass was observed. The change from S-OL-HDF to D-OL-HDF was well tolerated. Disappearance of postdialysis fatigue, better dialysis adequacy, a higher removal of middle and large molecules, a reduction of phosphate binders, improvement of status nutritional, and an important reduction of cardiovascular risk factors were observed.
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              Short daily hemodialysis: blood pressure control and left ventricular mass reduction in hypertensive hemodialysis patients.

              Several retrospective and uncontrolled prospective studies reported blood pressure (BP) normalization and left ventricular mass (LVM) reduction during daily hemodialysis (DHD). Conversely, the burden of these major independent risk factors is only marginally reduced by the initiation of standard thrice-weekly dialysis (SHD), and cardiovascular events still represent the most common cause of death in hemodialysis patients. Therefore, we performed a randomized two-period crossover study to compare the effect of short DHD versus SHD on BP and LVM in hypertensive patients with end-stage renal disease. We studied 12 hypertensive patients who had been stable on SHD treatment for more than 6 months. At the end of 6 months of SHD and 6 months of DHD in a sequence of randomly assigned 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring, echocardiography and bioimpedance were performed. Throughout the study, patients maintained the same Kt/V. A significant reduction in 24-hour BP during DHD was reported (systolic BP [SBP]: DHD, 128 +/- 11.6 mm Hg; SHD, 148 +/- 19.2 mm Hg; P < 0.01; diastolic BP: DHD, 67 +/- 8.3 mm Hg; SHD, 73 +/- 5.4 mm Hg; P = 0.01). The decrease in BP was accompanied by the withdrawal of antihypertensive therapy in 7 of 8 patients during DHD (P < 0.01). LVM index (LVMI) decreased significantly during DHD (DHD, 120.1 +/- 60.4 g/m(2); SHD, 148.7 +/- 59.7 g/m(2); P = 0.01). Extracellular water (ECW) content decreased from 52.7% +/- 11.4% to 47.6% +/- 7.5% (P = 0.02) and correlated with 24-hour SBP (r = 0.63; P < 0.01) and LVMI (r = 0.66; P < 0.01). In conclusion, this prospective crossover study confirms that DHD allows optimal control of BP, reduction in LVMI, and withdrawal of antihypertensive treatment. These effects seem to be related to reduction in ECW content.

                Author and article information

                Blood Purif
                Blood Purification
                S. Karger AG
                January 2005
                27 January 2005
                : 22
                : Suppl 2
                : 2-7
                National Institute of Health and Medical Research, INSERM U507, Department of Nephrology, Hospital Necker, Paris, France
                81866 Blood Purif 2004;22(suppl 2):2–7
                © 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

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                Figures: 3, Tables: 3, References: 36, Pages: 6
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