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      Hormonal Control of Growth Hormone Secretion

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          Abstract

          Growth hormone secretion by the somatotroph cells depends upon the interaction between hypothalamic regulatory peptides, target gland hormones and a variety of growth factors acting in a paracrine or autocrine fashion. This review will be focused on recent data regarding the mechanism by which growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) influences somatotroph cell function and the physiological role played by Ghrelin and leptin in the regulation of growth hormone (GH) secretion. It is well established that binding of GHRH to its receptor leads to activation of protein kinase A (PKA). More recently, it was found that GHRH can also activate mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase both in pituitary cells and in a cell line overexpressing the GHRH receptor. Whether somatotroph adenomas, either with or without a GS-alpha mutation, have alterations in some of the components of the activation of the MAP kinase pathway remains to be known. The recent isolation of Ghrelin, the endogenous ligand of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor, can be considered a landmark in the GH field, which opens up the possibility of gaining greater insight into our understanding of the mechanisms involved in the regulation of GH secretion and somatic growth. Indeed, preliminary evidences indicate that this peptide exerts a marked stimulatory effect on plasma GH levels in both rats and humans. Finally, it is well known that GH secretion is markedly influenced by nutritional status. Leptin has emerged as an important adipose tissue-generated signal that is involved in the regulation of GH secretion, thus providing an integrated regulatory system of growth and metabolism. Although the effects of leptin on GH secretion in humans remain to be clarified, indirect evidences indicate that it may play an inhibitory role.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          HRE
          Horm Res Paediatr
          10.1159/issn.1663-2818
          Hormone Research in Paediatrics
          S. Karger AG
          978-3-8055-7238-5
          978-3-318-00713-8
          1663-2818
          1663-2826
          2001
          2001
          17 November 2004
          : 55
          : Suppl 1
          : 11-16
          Affiliations
          Departments of aPediatrics, bPhysiology and cMedicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Santiago, Santiago de Compostela, Spain
          Article
          63456 Horm Res 2001;55(suppl 1):11–16
          10.1159/000063456
          11408755
          © 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

          Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

          Page count
          Figures: 3, References: 30, Pages: 6
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