We aimed to conduct a meta-analysis of published cohort studies to evaluate the risk of hip fracture in patients undergoing dialysis or kidney transplantation (KT).
We identified relevant studies by searching PubMed, EMBASE and Google Scholar databases from their inception to December 31, 2017. Cohort studies evaluating risk of hip fractures in patients undergoing dialysis or KT were considered included. The methodological quality of the cohort studies was assessed using the modified Newcastle-Ottawa scale.
In our meta-analysis of 14 retrospective cohort studies, a total of more than 1.5 million patients undergoing dialysis or KT were included, of whom more than 30,000 had hip fractures. After the merger, the proportion of hip fractures was 1.92% (95% CI, 1.38%−2.46%) with significant heterogeneity ( I 2=99.9%, P=0.000) in all patients, and the incidence rate of hip fractures (per 1,000 person-years) was 8.95 (95% CI, 4.05–13.85) with significant heterogeneity ( I 2=99.9%, P=0.000). The pooled relative risks (RR) value for dialysis patients compared with the general population were 6.35 (95% CI, 4.53–8.88) for male and 5.57 (95% CI, 4.44–6.99) for female. The pooled RR value for hemodialysis (HD) patients compared with peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients was 1.39 (95% CI, 1.13–1.70) with no heterogeneity ( I 2=0.0%, P=0.763).
In conclusion, the present meta-analysis reveals that about 2% of dialysis or KT patients go on to sustain a hip fracture during follow-up, with the overall hip fracture incidence rates being 8.95 per 1,000 person-years. The overall risk of hip fracture was more than 5-fold higher in dialysis patients than in the general population. Among patients on PD, HD, and KT, HD and KT patients had the highest and the lowest risk of hip fractures, respectively.