+1 Recommend
1 collections

      Drug Design, Development and Therapy (submit here)

      This international, peer-reviewed Open Access journal by Dove Medical Press focuses on the design and development of drugs, as well as the clinical outcomes, patient safety, and programs targeted at the effective and safe use of medicines. Sign up for email alerts here.

      88,007 Monthly downloads/views I 4.319 Impact Factor I 6.6 CiteScore I 1.12 Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) I 0.784 Scimago Journal & Country Rank (SJR)


      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Synthesis and evaluation of mutual azo prodrug of 5-aminosalicylic acid linked to 2-phenylbenzoxazole-2-yl-5-acetic acid in ulcerative colitis


      Read this article at

          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.


          In this study, the syntheses of 4-aminophenylbenzoxazol-2-yl-5-acetic acid, (an analogue of a known nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug [NSAID]) and 5-[4-(benzoxazol-2-yl-5-acetic acid)phenylazo]-2-hydroxybenzoic acid (a novel mutual azo prodrug of 5-aminosalicylic acid [5-ASA]) are reported. The structures of the synthesized compounds were confirmed using infrared (IR), hydrogen-1 nuclear magnetic resonance ( 1H NMR), and mass spectrometry (MS) spectroscopy. Incubation of the azo compound with rat cecal contents demonstrated the susceptibility of the prepared azo prodrug to bacterial azoreductase enzyme. The azo compound and the 4-aminophenylbenzoxazol-2-yl-5-acetic acid were evaluated for inflammatory bowel diseases, in trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNB)-induced colitis in rats. The synthesized diazo compound and the 4-aminophenylbenzoxazol-2-yl-5-acetic acid were found to be as effective as 5-aminosalicylic acid for ulcerative colitis. The results of this work suggest that the 4-aminophenylbenzoxazol-2-yl-5-acetic acid may represent a new lead for treatment of ulcerative colitis.

          Most cited references36

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Hapten-induced model of chronic inflammation and ulceration in the rat colon.

          We have developed a simple and reproducible rat model of chronic colonic inflammation by the intraluminal instillation of a solution containing a "barrier breaker" and a hapten. Administration of the hapten 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (5-30 mg) in 0.25 ml of 50% ethanol as the "barrier breaker" produced dose-dependent colonic ulceration and inflammation. At a dose of 30 mg, trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid/ethanol-induced ulceration and marked thickening of the bowel wall persisted for at least 8 wk. Histologically, the inflammatory response included mucosal and submucosal infiltration by polymorphonuclear leukocytes, macrophages, lymphocytes, connective tissue mast cells, and fibroblasts. Granulomas were observed in 57% of the rats killed 3 wk after induction of inflammation. Langhan's-type giant cells were also observed. Segmental ulceration and inflammation were common. The characteristics and relatively long duration of inflammation and ulceration induced in this model afford an opportunity to study the pathophysiology of colonic inflammatory disease in a specifically controlled fashion, and to evaluate new treatments potentially applicable to inflammatory bowel disease in humans.
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Effect of 5-aminosalicylate use on colorectal cancer and dysplasia risk: a systematic review and metaanalysis of observational studies.

            We performed a systematic review with metaanalysis of observational studies evaluating the association between 5-ASA use and colorectal cancer (CRC) or dysplasia among patients with ulcerative colitis. We conducted a search of Medline Embase Biosis, Web of Science, Cochrane Collaboration, manually reviewed the literature, and consulted with experts. Studies were included if they 1) evaluated and clearly defined exposure to 5-aminosalicylates in patients with ulcerative colitis, 2) reported CRC or dysplasia outcomes, 3) reported relative risks or odds ratio or provided data for their calculations. Quantitative analysis using a random-effects model is presented. Nine studies (3 cohort, 6 case-control) containing 334 cases of CRC, 140 cases of dysplasia, and a total of 1,932 subjects satisfied all inclusion criteria. Five studies reported CRC outcomes alone, two studies reported separate cancer and dysplasia outcomes, and two studies reported a combined outcome of CRC or dysplasia. All primary estimates are homogenous. Pooled analysis showed a protective association between use of 5-aminosalicylates and CRC (OR=0.51; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.37-0.69) or a combined endpoint of CRC/dysplasia (OR 0.51; 95% CI: 0.38-0.69). 5-ASA use was not associated with a lower risk of dysplasia, although only two studies evaluated this outcome (OR=1.18; 95% CI: 0.41-3.43). Pooled results of observational studies support a protective association between 5-aminosalicylates and CRC or a combined endpoint of CRC/dysplasia in patients with ulcerative colitis. Additional studies analyzing the effect of 5-ASA on risk of dysplasia are needed.
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Inhibition of leukotriene synthesis markedly accelerates healing in a rat model of inflammatory bowel disease.

              The role of leukotrienes in the pathogenesis of chronic colitis was investigated using a rat model. Ulceration and inflammation of the distal colon was initiated by the intracolonic administration of the hapten trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid in 50% ethanol. Leukotriene B4 synthesis increased significantly within 4 h after induction of damage, with the greatest increase observed 24-72 h after administration of the hapten. The increase in leukotriene B4 synthesis correlated well (r = 0.88) with an increase in colonic myeloperoxidase activity, a biochemical marker of neutrophil infiltration. Daily intracolonic treatment with a specific 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor, L651,392, during the first 4 days after initiation of colitis, resulted in significant reductions of colonic leukotriene B4 synthesis, colonic damage score, and colon wet weight. When examined 2 wk after initiation of colitis, the group treated with L651,392 (for the first 4 days) showed significantly less colonic damage (assessed macroscopically and histologically) and colonic inflammation (assessed histologically and by measurement of myeloperoxidase activity). The healing produced by treatment with L651,392 was comparable to that observed after treatment with 5-aminosalicylic acid in a similar manner. Although a reduction of colonic damage could be produced in this model by intracolonic pretreatment with a prostaglandin E1 analogue (rioprostil), the mechanism of action of L651,392 did not appear to be through prevention of the initial injury induced by the hapten and ethanol solution. These results demonstrate that inhibition of leukotriene synthesis results in a marked acceleration of the healing of colonic ulcers and resolution of colonic inflammation in this animal model of chronic colitis. The results are therefore consistent with the hypothesis that leukotrienes play an important role in the pathogenesis of intestinal inflammation.

                Author and article information

                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                31 July 2013
                : 7
                : 691-698
                [1 ]Department of Medicinal chemistry and Pharmacognosy, Jordan University of science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan
                [2 ]Department of Pathology, Jordan University, Amman, Jordan
                [3 ]Department of clinical Pharmacy, Jordan University of science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan
                Author notes
                correspondence: Jamal A Jilani, Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jordan University of science and Technology, PO box 3030, Irbid, Jordan, Tel +962 2 720 1000, Fax +962 2 720 1075, Email jilanij@ 123456just.edu.jo
                © 2013 Jilani et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Ltd, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License.

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Ltd, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Original Research

                Pharmacology & Pharmaceutical medicine
                benzoxazole acetic acid,azo prodrug,colon drug delivery


                Comment on this article