+1 Recommend
0 collections
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Impact of image quality on reliability of the measurements of left ventricular systolic function and global longitudinal strain in 2D echocardiography

      Read this article at

          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.



          Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and global longitudinal strain (GLS) play important roles in diagnosis and management of cardiac diseases. However, the issue of the accuracy and reliability of LVEF and GLS remains to be solved. Image quality is one of the most important factors affecting measurement variability. The aim of this study was to investigate whether improved image quality could reduce observer variability.


          Two sets of three apical images were acquired using relatively old- and new-generation ultrasound imaging systems (Vivid 7 and Vivid E95) in 308 subjects. Image quality was assessed by endocardial border delineation index (EBDI) using a 3-point scoring system. Three observers measured the LVEF and GLS, and these values and inter-observer variability were investigated.


          Image quality was significantly better with Vivid E95 (EBDI: 26.8 ± 5.9) than that with Vivid 7 (22.8 ± 6.3, P < 0.0001). Regarding the inter-observer variability of LVEF, the r-value, bias, 95% limit of agreement and intra-class correlation coefficient for Vivid 7 were comparable to those for Vivid E95. The % variabilities were significantly lower for Vivid E95 (5.3–6.5%) than those for Vivid 7 (6.5–7.5%). Regarding GLS, all observer variability parameters were better for Vivid E95 than for Vivid 7. Improvements in image quality yielded benefits to both LVEF and GLS measurement reliability. Multivariate analysis showed that image quality was indeed an important factor of observer variability in the measurement of LVEF and GLS.


          The new-generation ultrasound imaging system offers improved image quality and reduces inter-observer variability in the measurement of LVEF and GLS.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 18

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Findings from left ventricular strain and strain rate imaging in asymptomatic patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

          Regional left ventricular (LV) myocardial functional changes in early diabetic cardiomyopathy have not been well documented. LV multidirectional strain and strain rate analyses by 2-dimensional speckle tracking were used to detect subtle myocardial dysfunction in 47 asymptomatic, male patients (age 57 +/- 6 years) with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The results were compared to those from 53 male controls matched by age, body mass index, and body surface area. No differences were found in the LV end-diastolic volume index (40.7 +/- 8.9 vs 44.1 +/- 7.8 ml/m(2), p = NS), end-systolic volume index (16.0 +/- 4.8 vs 17.8 +/- 4.3 ml/m(2), p = NS), ejection fraction (61.0 +/- 5.5% vs 59.8 +/- 5.3%, p = NS). The transmitral E/A (0.95 +/- 0.21 vs 1.12 +/- 0.32, p = 0.007) and pulmonary S/D (1.45 +/- 0.28 vs 1.25 +/- 0.27, p = 0.001) ratios were more impaired in the patients with diabetes mellitus. Importantly, the diabetic patients had impaired longitudinal, but preserved circumferential and radial systolic and diastolic, function. Diabetes mellitus was an independent predictor for longitudinal strain, systolic strain rate and early diastolic strain rate on multiple linear regression analysis (all p <0.001). In conclusion, the LV longitudinal systolic and diastolic function were impaired, but the circumferential and radial functions were preserved in patients with uncomplicated type 2 diabetes mellitus.
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Rapid online quantification of left ventricular volume from real-time three-dimensional echocardiographic data.

            Determination of left ventricular (LV) volumes and ejection fraction (EF) from two-dimensional echocardiographic (2DE) images is subjective, time-consuming, and relatively inaccurate because of foreshortened views and the use of geometric assumptions. Our aims were (1) to validate a new method for rapid, online measurement of LV volumes from real-time three-dimensional echocardiographic (RT3DE) data using cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) as the reference and (2) to compare its accuracy and reproducibility with standard 2DE measurements. CMR, 2DE, and RT3DE datasets were obtained in 50 patients. End-systolic and end-diastolic volumes (ESV and EDV) were calculated from the 2DE images using biplane method of disks. ES and ED RT3DE datasets were analysed using prototype software designed to automatically detect the endocardial surface using a deformable shell model and calculate ESV and EDV from voxel counts. 2DE and RT3DE-derived volumes were compared with CMR (linear regression, Bland-Altman analysis). In most patients, analysis of RT3DE data required <2 min per patient. RT3DE measurements correlated highly with CMR (r: 0.96, 0.97, and 0.93 for EDV, ESV, and EF, respectively) with small biases (-14 mL, -6.5 mL, -1%) and narrow limits of agreement (SD: 17 mL, 16 mL, 6.4%). 2DE measurements correlated less well with CMR (r: 0.89, 0.92, 0.86) with greater biases (-23 mL, -15 mL, 1%) and wider limits of agreement (SD: 29 mL, 24 mL, 9.5%). RT3DE resulted in lower intra-observer (EDV: 7.9 vs. 23%; ESV: 7.6 vs. 26%) and inter-observer variability (EDV: 11 vs. 26%; ESV: 13 vs. 31%). Semi-automated detection of the LV endocardial surface from RT3DE data is suitable for clinical use because it allows rapid, accurate, and reproducible measurements of LV volumes, superior to conventional 2DE methods.
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Real-time 3-dimensional echocardiographic quantification of left ventricular volumes: multicenter study for validation with magnetic resonance imaging and investigation of sources of error.

              We sought to study: 1) the accuracy and reproducibility of real-time 3-dimensional echocardiographic (RT3DE) analysis of left ventricular (LV) volumes in a multicenter setting, 2) interinstitutional differences in relationship with the investigators' specific experience, and 3) potential sources of volume underestimation. Reproducibility and accuracy of RT3DE evaluation of LV volumes has not been validated in multicenter studies, and LV volumes have been reported to be underestimated compared to cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) standard. A total of 92 patients with a wide range of ejection fractions underwent CMR and RT3DE imaging at 4 different institutions. Images were analyzed to obtain LV end-systolic volume (ESV) and end-diastolic volume (EDV). Reproducibility was assessed using repeated analyses. The investigation of potential sources of error included: phantom imaging, intermodality analysis-related differences, and differences in LV boundary identification, such as inclusion of endocardial trabeculae and mitral valve plane in the LV volume. The RT3DE-derived LV volumes correlated highly with CMR values (EDV: r = 0.91; ESV: r = 0.93), but were 26% and 29% lower consistently across institutions, with the magnitude of the bias being inversely related to the level of experience. The RT3DE measurements were less reproducible (4% to 13%) than CMR measurements (4% to 7%). Minimal changes in endocardial surface position (1 mm) resulted in significant differences in measured volumes (11%). Exclusion of trabeculae and mitral valve plane from the CMR reference eliminated the intermodality bias. The RT3DE-derived LV volumes are underestimated in most patients because RT3DE imaging cannot differentiate between the myocardium and trabeculae. To minimize this difference, tracing the endocardium to include trabeculae in the LV cavity is recommended. With the understanding of these intermodality differences, RT3DE quantification of LV volume is a reliable tool that provides clinically useful information.

                Author and article information

                Echo Res Pract
                Echo Res Pract
                Echo Research and Practice
                Bioscientifica Ltd (Bristol )
                March 2018
                15 January 2018
                : 5
                : 1
                : 27-39
                [1 ]Second Department of Internal Medicine University of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, Kitakyushu, Japan
                [2 ]Department of Laboratory and Transfusion Medicine University of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, Kitakyushu, Japan
                Author notes
                Correspondence should be addressed to Y Nagata: nyasufumi1979@
                © 2018 The authors


                Comment on this article