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      Diagnosis of Autoimmune Blistering Diseases

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          Abstract

          Autoimmune skin blistering diseases (AIBD) are characterized by autoantibodies that are directed against structural proteins in the skin and adjacent mucous membranes. Some clinical signs are typical for a specific AIBD, however, correct diagnosis requires the detection of tissue-bound or circulating autoantibodies. The gold standard for diagnosis of AIBD is the detection of autoantibodies or complement component 3 by direct immunofluorescence (DIF) microscopy of a perilesional biopsy. Circulating antibodies can be detected via indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) microscopy of different tissue substrates including human skin, monkey esophagus, and more recently, recombinant forms of the different target antigens. Latter are also employed in various commercial ELISA systems and by immunoblotting in in-house assays available in specialized laboratories. ELISA systems are also particularly valuable for monitoring of the disease activity during the disease course which can be helpful for treatment decisions. Exact diagnosis is essential for both treatment and prognosis, since some AIBD are associated with malign tumors such as paraneoplastic pemphigus and anti-laminin 332 mucous membrane pemphigoid. This review presents clinical and immunopathological features of AIBD for the state-of the art diagnosis of these disorders.

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          Most cited references147

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          The first international consensus on mucous membrane pemphigoid: definition, diagnostic criteria, pathogenic factors, medical treatment, and prognostic indicators.

          We aimed to develop consensus-based recommendations for streamlining medical communication among various health care professionals, to improve accuracy of diagnosis and treatment, and to facilitate future investigations for mucous membrane pemphigoid. Because of the highly specific nature of this group of diseases, the 26 invited participants included either international scholars in the field of mucous membrane pemphigoid or experts in cutaneous pharmacology representing the 3 medical disciplines ophthalmology, oral medicine, and dermatology. The first author (L.S.C.) conducted a literature search. Based on the information obtained, international experts who had contributed to the literature in the clinical care, diagnosis, and laboratory investigation for mucous membrane pemphigoid were invited to participate in a consensus meeting aimed at developing a consensus statement. A consensus meeting was convened and conducted on May 10, 1999, in Chicago, Ill, to discuss the relevant issues. The first author drafted the statement based on the consensus developed at the meeting and the participants' written comments. The draft was submitted to all participants for 3 separate rounds of review, and disagreements were reconciled based on literature evidence. The third and final statement incorporated all relevant evidence obtained in the literature search and the consensus developed by the participants. The final statement was approved and endorsed by all 26 participants. Specific consensus-based recommendations were made regarding the definition, diagnostic criteria, pathogenic factors, medical treatment, and prognostic indicators for mucous membrane pemphigoid. A system of standard reporting for these patients was proposed to facilitate a uniform data collection.
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            Induction of pemphigus in neonatal mice by passive transfer of IgG from patients with the disease.

            We examined the role of circulating autoantibodies in the pathogenesis of pemphigus vulgaris by passively transferring IgG fractions from five patients with pemphigus vulgaris into neonatal Balb/c mice, in doses of 1.5 to 16 mg per gram of body weight per day. Cutaneous blisters and erosions with the histologic, ultrastructural, and immunofluorescence features of pemphigus occurred in 39 to 55 mice given intraperitoneal injections of IgG from patients with pemphigus and in none of 58 control mice given normal human IgG. IgG fractions with high titers of pemphigus antibodies were most effective in inducing disease, and this effect was dose dependent. Titers of circulating IgG in mouse serum closely correlated with the extent of disease induced (P less than 0.002). This study strongly supports the proposed role of pemphigus autoantibodies in the pathogenesis of pemphigus vulgaris in human beings and demonstrates that pemphigus can be passively transferred to laboratory animals.
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              Autoantibody Profile Differentiates between Inflammatory and Noninflammatory Bullous Pemphigoid.

              Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is a major autoimmune blistering skin disorder, in which a majority of the autoantibodies (autoAbs) target the juxtamembranous extracellular noncollagenous 16A domain (NC16A) domain of hemidesmosomal collagen XVII. BP-autoAbs may target regions of collagen XVII other than the NC16A domain; however, correlations between epitopes of BP-autoAbs and clinical features have not been fully elucidated. To address correlations between the clinical features and specific epitopes of BP-autoAbs, we evaluated the epitope profiles of BP-autoAbs in 121 patients. A total of 87 patients showed a typical inflammatory phenotype with erythema and autoAbs targeting the anti-NC16A domain, whereas 14 patients showed a distinct noninflammatory phenotype, in which autoAbs specifically targeted the midportion of collagen XVII, but not NC16A. Interestingly, this group clinically showed significantly reduced erythema associated with scant lesional infiltration of eosinophils. Surprisingly, 7 of the 14 cases (50.0%) received dipeptidyl peptidase-IV inhibitors for the treatment of diabetes. Dipeptidyl peptidase-IV inhibitors were used in 3 of 76 (3.9%) typical cases of BP with autoAbs targeting NC16A; thus, dipeptidyl peptidase-IV inhibitors are thought to be involved in the development of atypical noninflammatory BP. This study shows that the autoAb profile differentiates between inflammatory and noninflammatory BP, and that noninflammatory BP may be associated with dipeptidyl peptidase-IV inhibitors.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Med (Lausanne)
                Front Med (Lausanne)
                Front. Med.
                Frontiers in Medicine
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                2296-858X
                02 November 2018
                2018
                : 5
                : 296
                Affiliations
                Department of Dermatology, University of Lübeck , Lübeck, Germany
                Author notes

                Edited by: Philippe Musette, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire (CHU) de Rouen, France

                Reviewed by: Takashi Hashimoto, Osaka University, Japan; Irina Khamaganova, Pirogov Russian National Research Medical University, Russia

                *Correspondence: Mareike Witte mareike.witte@ 123456uksh.de

                This article was submitted to Dermatology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Medicine

                Article
                10.3389/fmed.2018.00296
                6224342
                30450358
                fe401292-3467-4586-b0cc-f4a303e64450
                Copyright © 2018 Witte, Zillikens and Schmidt.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                History
                : 11 July 2018
                : 05 October 2018
                Page count
                Figures: 8, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 162, Pages: 14, Words: 10264
                Categories
                Medicine
                Review

                autoantibody,biochip,immunofluorescence,elisa,pemphigus,pemphigoid,epidermolysis bullosa acquisita,dermatitis herpetiformis

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