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      In vitro inhibitory effects of plant-derived by-products against Cryptosporidium parvum Translated title: Effets inhibiteurs in vitro de sous-produits dérivés des plantes contre Cryptosporidium parvum

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          Abstract

          Disposal of organic plant wastes and by-products from the food or pharmaceutical industries usually involves high costs. In the present study, 42 samples derived from such by-products were screened in vitro against Cryptosporidium parvum, a protozoan parasite that may contaminate drinking water and cause diarrhoea. The novel bioassay was previously established in the microtitre plate format. Human ileocaecal adenocarcinoma (HCT-8) cell cultures were seeded with C. parvum oocysts and parasite development was monitored by an indirect fluorescent antibody technique (IFAT) and microscopic assessment for clusters of secondary infection (CSI). Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and potential detrimental effects on the host cells were determined. An ethanolic extract from olive ( Olea europaea) pomace, after oil pressing and phenol recovery, reproducibly inhibited C. parvum development (MIC = 250–500 μg mL −1, IC 50 = 361 (279–438) μg mL −1, IC 90 = 467 (398–615) μg mL −1). Accordingly, tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, trans-coniferyl alcohol and oleuropein were selected as reference test compounds, but their contributions to the observed activity of the olive pomace extract were insignificant. The established test system proved to be a fast and efficient assay for identifying anti-cryptosporidial activities in biological waste material and comparison with selected reference compounds.

          Translated abstract

          L’élimination des déchets végétaux organiques et des sous-produits des industries alimentaires ou pharmaceutiques invoque généralement des coûts élevés. Dans la présente étude, 42 échantillons dérivés de ces sous-produits ont été testés in vitro contre Cryptosporidium parvum, un protozoaire parasite provoquant des contaminations de l’eau potable et des diarrhées. Le bioessai nouveau a été établi précédemment sous la forme de plaques de microtitrage. Des cultures de cellules humaines d’adénocarcinome iléocæcal (HCT-8) ont été ensemencées avec des oocystes de C. parvum et le développement du parasite a été suivi par technique d’immunofluorescence indirecte (IFAT) et évaluation microscopique pour les foyers d’infection secondaire (CSI). Les concentrations minimales inhibitrices (CMI) et les effets néfastes potentiels sur les cellules hôtes ont été déterminés. Un extrait éthanolique de grignons d’olives ( Olea europaea), après extraction de l’huile et récupération du phénol, a inhibé de manière reproductible le développement de C. parvum (CMI = 250–500 μg mL −1, IC 50 = 361 (279–438) μg mL −1, IC 90 = 467 (398–615) μg mL −1). En conséquence, le tyrosol, l’hydroxytyrosol, l’alcool trans-coniféryl et l’oleuropéine ont été choisis comme composés pour des essais de référence, mais leurs contributions à l’activité observée de l’extrait de grignons d’olive étaient insignifiantes. Le système de test établi a prouvé qu’il était rapide et efficace pour identifier les activités anticryptosporidiales dans du matériel issu de déchets biologiques et pour des comparaisons avec des composés de référence sélectionnés.

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          Most cited references 33

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          Valuable Nutrients and Functional Bioactives in Different Parts of Olive (Olea europaea L.)—A Review

          The Olive tree (Olea europaea L.), a native of the Mediterranean basin and parts of Asia, is now widely cultivated in many other parts of the world for production of olive oil and table olives. Olive is a rich source of valuable nutrients and bioactives of medicinal and therapeutic interest. Olive fruit contains appreciable concentration, 1–3% of fresh pulp weight, of hydrophilic (phenolic acids, phenolic alchohols, flavonoids and secoiridoids) and lipophilic (cresols) phenolic compounds that are known to possess multiple biological activities such as antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, antiinflammatory, antimicrobial, antihypertensive, antidyslipidemic, cardiotonic, laxative, and antiplatelet. Other important compounds present in olive fruit are pectin, organic acids, and pigments. Virgin olive oil (VOO), extracted mechanically from the fruit, is also very popular for its nutritive and health-promoting potential, especially against cardiovascular disorders due to the presence of high levels of monounsaturates and other valuable minor components such as phenolics, phytosterols, tocopherols, carotenoids, chlorophyll and squalene. The cultivar, area of production, harvest time, and the processing techniques employed are some of the factors shown to influence the composition of olive fruit and olive oil. This review focuses comprehensively on the nutrients and high-value bioactives profile as well as medicinal and functional aspects of different parts of olives and its byproducts. Various factors affecting the composition of this food commodity of medicinal value are also discussed.
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            Natural products as antiparasitic drugs.

            Natural products are not only the basis for traditional or ethnic medicine. Only recently, they have provided highly successful new drugs such as Artemisinin. Furthermore, screening natural products found in all sorts of environments such as the deep sea, rain forests and hot springs, and produced by all sorts of organisms ranging from bacteria, fungi and plants to protozoa, sponges and invertebrates, is a highly competitive field where all of the major pharmaceutical companies are encountered. Already, many new natural product groups have revealed antiparasitic properties of surprising efficacy and selectivity, as will be shown in this review for plant-derived alkaloids, terpenes and phenolics. Many novel lead structures, however, have severe chemico-physical drawbacks such as poor solubility. Here, innovative drug formulations and carrier systems might help, as discussed by the authors in another article of this series.
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              Plant bioactives for ruminant health and productivity.

              Plants have been used throughout history for their medicinal properties. This use has often focused on human health but plants have also been, and still are, applied in ethnoveterinary practice and animal health management. In recent times, the use of synthetic chemicals has become prevalent. Public awareness of the potential environmental and health risks associated with heavy chemical use has also increased. This has put pressure on regulatory bodies to reduce the use of chemicals in agriculture. The most striking example is the 2006 banning of antibiotics in animal feed by the European Union. Moves such as this have increased the drive to find alternatives to synthetic chemicals and research has again turned to the use of plant bioactives as a means of improving animal health. Current scientific evidence suggests there is significant potential to use plants to enhance animal health in general and that of ruminants (cattle, deer, sheep, etc.) in particular. Active areas of research for plant bioactives (particularly saponin and tannin containing plants) include reproductive efficiency, milk and meat quality improvement, foam production/bloat control and methane production. Nematode control is also a significant area of research and the evidence suggests a much broader range of phytochemicals may be effective. This review presents a summary of the literature and examines international research efforts towards the development of plant bioactives for animal health.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Parasite
                Parasite
                parasite
                Parasite
                EDP Sciences
                1252-607X
                1776-1042
                2016
                14 September 2016
                : 23
                : ( publisher-idID: parasite/2016/01 )
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Department of Microbiology and Ecosystem Science, University of Vienna Althanstraße 14 1090 Vienna Austria
                [2 ] BIOMIN Research Center Technopark 1 3430 Tulln Austria
                [3 ] Institute of Animal Nutrition and Functional Plant Compounds, Department for Farm Animals and Veterinary Public Health, University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna Veterinärplatz 1 1210 Vienna Austria
                [4 ] Institute of Parasitology, Department of Pathobiology, University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna Veterinärplatz 1 1210 Vienna Austria
                [5 ] Plant Biochemistry, Albrecht-von-Haller Institute, University of Göttingen Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 11 37077 Göttingen Germany
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author: klaus.teichmann@ 123456biomin.net
                Article
                parasite160045 10.1051/parasite/2016050
                10.1051/parasite/2016050
                5028040
                27627637
                © K. Teichmann et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2016

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 2, Equations: 0, References: 46, Pages: 8
                Categories
                Research Article

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