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      Q Fever Endocarditis: A Diagnostic Dilemma

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      Canadian Journal of General Internal Medicine
      Dougmar Publishing Group, Inc.

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          Abstract

          Q fever is a zoonotic disease, typically spread by aerosol transmission from infected animals to humans. It can present with a variety of clinical manifestations, but endocarditis is the most common manifestation. We present a case of an 80-year-old man with a prior bioprosthetic aortic valve (AV) replacement who presented with chronic constitutional symptoms that acutely worsened over two days leading up to his presentation. An initial echocardiogram was equivocal for endocarditis, and bloodwork revealed a bicyotpenia, elevated ferritin, and negative blood cultures. He was diagnosed with Q fever endocarditis after positive serology for Coxiella burnetti. Treatment for this patient involved a 24-month course of doxycycline and hydroxychloroquine. Résumé Q la fièvre est une maladie zoonotique, généralement propagée par la transmission en aérosol des animaux infectés aux humains. Il peut présenter avec une variété de manifestations cliniques, mais l'endocardite est la manifestation la plus commune. Nous présentons un cas d'un homme de 80 ans avec une valve aortique antérieure de bioprothèse (AV) de remplacement qui a présenté des symptômes chroniques de la Constitution qui s'est aggravée de façon aiguë pendant deux jours menant à sa présentation. Un échocardiogramme initial a été équivoque pour l'endocardite, et analyses a révélé une bicyotpenia, une élévation de la ferritine et des cultures sanguines négatives. On lui a diagnostiqué une endocardite de fièvre Q après une sérologie positive pour Coxiella burnetti. Le traitement pour ce patient a impliqué un cours de 24 mois de doxycycline et de hydroxychloroquine.    

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          Evolution from acute Q fever to endocarditis is associated with underlying valvulopathy and age and can be prevented by prolonged antibiotic treatment.

           The prevention of Q fever endocarditis through the use of systematic echocardiography and antibiotic prophylaxis in patients with acute Q fever and valvulopathy has never been validated in a cohort study.  From 2007 to 2012, all patients followed at the French National Referral Center for acute Q fever were included in a cohort study. The prevention of endocarditis included a systematic transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) and a 12-month course of doxycycline and hydroxychloroquine prophylaxis in patients with significant valvulopathy. Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) was performed in patients with a negative TTE and a rapid rise of phase I immunoglobulin G titers.  Seventy-two patients were included with a median follow-up time of 22 months. A valvulopathy was identified in 31 patients (43%), being previously unknown in 24 (33%) and diagnosed only upon TEE or a second TTE in 7 (10%). The major determinants associated with endocarditis were age (hazard ratio [HR], 1.07; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.006-1.13; P = .03), aortic regurgitation (HR, 10.2; 95% CI, 3.2-32.2; P < .001), and mitral regurgitation (HR, 4.78; 95% CI, 1.4-16.0; P = .01). Antibiotic prophylaxis was highly effective (HR, 0.002; 95% CI, .00-.77; P = .04) for the 31 patients with valvulopathy.  Acute Q fever could be associated with an increased prevalence of valvulopathy. The evolution from acute Q fever to endocarditis is associated with age and valvulopathy and can be entirely prevented by antibiotic prophylaxis. Although the name "chronic Q fever" suggests otherwise, rapid evolution (<1 month) was observed.
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            Acute Q fever with hemophagocytic syndrome: case report and literature review.

            Hemophagocytic syndrome is a rare complication of acute Q fever. We reported the case of 26-year-old man with fever, chills, severe headache, non-productive cough and progressive thrombocytopenia. Bone marrow aspirate revealed hemophagocytosis. We discussed the differences among the three previous reported cases and the possible mechanisms of hemophagocytic syndrome.
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              No Such Thing as Chronic Q Fever

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Canadian Journal of General Internal Medicine
                Can Journ Gen Int Med
                Dougmar Publishing Group, Inc.
                2369-1778
                1911-1606
                March 05 2018
                March 05 2018
                : 13
                : 1
                Article
                10.22374/cjgim.v13i1.218
                fe51107e-5459-4d87-9168-86ffef531e51
                © 2018

                Copyright of articles published in all DPG titles is retained by the author. The author grants DPG the rights to publish the article and identify itself as the original publisher. The author grants DPG exclusive commercial rights to the article. The author grants any non-commercial third party the rights to use the article freely provided original author(s) and citation details are cited. To view a copy of this license, visit https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/


                General medicine,Geriatric medicine,Neurology,Internal medicine
                General medicine, Geriatric medicine, Neurology, Internal medicine

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