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      Toxoplasma gondii infection and multiple sclerosis: An age- and a gender-matched case-control seroprevalence study

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          Abstract

          The link between Toxoplasma gondii infection and multiple sclerosis remains controversial. In the present study, we aimed to determine the association between T. gondii seropositivity and multiple sclerosis. Using an age- and gender-matched case-control study, we studied 45 patients who had multiple sclerosis attended in two public hospitals and 225 control subjects without this disease and other neurological disorders in Durango City, Mexico. Serum samples of cases and controls were analyzed for detection of anti -Toxoplasma IgG using a commercially available enzyme-linked immunoassay. One (2.22%) of the 45 patients with multiple sclerosis, and 15 (6.67%) of the 225 control subjects without this disease were seropositive for anti- T. gondii IgG antibodies. No statistically significant difference (OR = 0.31; 95% CI: 0.04–2.47; P = 0.48) in seroprevalence of anti- T. gondii IgG antibodies between cases and controls was found. The frequency of T. gondii seropositivity did not vary among cases and controls about sex or age groups. Results of this study do not support an association between seropositivity to T. gondii and multiple sclerosis. However, additional research with larger sample sizes to confirm this lack of association should be conducted.

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          Most cited references 15

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          Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection in general population in a northern Mexican city.

          There is a lack of information about the seroepidemiology of T. gondii infection in the general population of Durango City, Mexico. Anti- Toxoplasma gondii IgG and IgM antibodies were sought in 974 inhabitants in Durango City, Mexico with the use of enzyme-linked immunoassays. in total, 59 (6.1%) of 974 participants (mean age 37 ± 16.1 yr) had IgG anti- T. gondii antibodies. Twenty (2.1%) of them also had IgM anti- T. gondii antibodies. IgG levels of 13-99, 100-150, and >150 International Units (IU)/ml were found in 14 (23.7%), 3 (5.1%), and 42 (71.2%) anti- T. gondii IgG-positive participants, respectively. Prevalence of infection increased with age (P < 0.05), and was significantly lower in participants born in Durango State than those born in other Mexican states (P < 0.01). Toxoplasma gondii infection was significantly associated with consumption of boar meat (adjusted odds ratio [OR]  =  3.02; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.49-6.13), and squirrel meat (adjusted OR  =  2.18; 95% CI: 1.17-4.09). in addition, infection was negatively associated with travel abroad (adjusted OR  =  0.42; 95% CI: 0.23-0.77), and salami consumption (adjusted OR  =  0.57; 95% CI: 0.32-0.99). This is the first report of seroprevalence and contributing factors for T. gondii infection in general population in Durango City, and of an association of the consumption of boar meat with T. gondii infection. This study provides a basis for the design of successful preventive measures against T. gondii infection.
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            Animals are key to human toxoplasmosis.

            Toxoplasma gondii is an extremely sucessfull protozoal parasite which infects almost all mamalian species including humans. Approximately 30% of the human population worldwide is chronically infected with T. gondii. In general, human infection is asymptomatic but the parasite may induce severe disease in fetuses and immunocompromised patients. In addition, T. gondii may cause sight-threatening posterior uveitis in immunocompetent patients. Apart from few exceptions, humans acquire T. gondii from animals. Both, the oral uptake of T. gondii oocysts released by specific hosts, i.e. felidae, and of cysts persisting in muscle cells of animals result in human toxoplasmosis. In the present review, we discuss recent new data on the cell biology of T. gondii and parasite diversity in animals. In addition, we focus on the impact of these various parasite strains and their different virulence on the clinical outcome of human congenital toxoplasmosis and T. gondii uveitis.
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              Toxoplasma gondii-induced neuronal alterations.

               A Parlog,  D Schluter,  I Dunay (2015)
              The zoonotic pathogen Toxoplasma gondii infects over 30% of the human population. The intracellular parasite can persist lifelong in the CNS within neurons modifying their function and structure, thus leading to specific behavioural changes of the host. In recent years, several in vitro studies and murine models have focused on the elucidation of these modifications. Furthermore, investigations of the human population have correlated Toxoplasma seropositivity with changes in neurological functions; however, the complex underlying mechanisms of the subtle behavioural alteration are still not fully understood. The parasites are able to induce direct modifications in the infected cells, for example by altering dopamine metabolism, by functionally silencing neurons as well as by hindering apoptosis. Moreover, indirect effects of the peripheral immune system and alterations of the immune status of the CNS, observed during chronic infection, might also contribute to changes in neuronal connectivity and synaptic plasticity. In this review, we will provide an overview and highlight recent advances, which describe changes in the neuronal function and morphology upon T. gondii infection.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Eur J Microbiol Immunol (Bp)
                Eur J Microbiol Immunol (Bp)
                EUJMI
                European Journal of Microbiology & Immunology
                Akadémiai Kiadó (Budapest )
                2062-509X
                2062-8633
                02 July 2020
                18 July 2020
                : 10
                : 2
                : 76-79
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Hospital Regional de Alta Especialidad de Ixtapaluca , Carretera Federal México Puebla Km 35, Ixtapaluca, 56530, Mexico
                [2 ] Biomedical Research Laboratory. Faculty of Medicine and Nutrition, Juárez University of Durango State , Avenida Universidad S/N, Durango, 34000, Mexico
                [3 ] Institute for Scientific Research “Dr. Roberto Rivera-Damm”, Juárez University of Durango State , Avenida Universidad S/N, Durango, 34000, Mexico
                [4 ] Unidad de Trastornos del Movimiento y Sueño, Hospital General Dr. Manuel Gea González , Ciudad de México, Mexico
                [5 ] General Hospital “450” , Secretary of Health, Durango, Mexico
                Author notes
                *Corresponding author. Laboratorio de Investigación Biomédica, Facultad de Medicina y Nutrición, Avenida Universidad S/N, Durango, Dgo, 34000, México. Tel./fax: +52 618 8130527. E-mail: alvaradocosme@ 123456yahoo.com
                Article
                10.1556/1886.2019.00020
                7391378
                32628617
                © 2020, The Authors

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium for non-commercial purposes, provided the original author and source are credited, a link to the CC License is provided, and changes – if any – are indicated.

                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 1, Equations: 0, References: 21, Pages: 4
                Categories
                Original Research Paper

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