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      Resistência de Haemonchus placei, Cooperia punctata e Oesophagostomum radiatum à ivermectina pour-on a 500mcgkg-1 em rebanhos bovinos no Brasil Translated title: Haemonchus placei, Cooperia punctata and Oesophagostomum radiatum resistant to ivermectin pour-on 500mcgkg-1 in cattle from Brazil

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          Abstract

          O amplo espectro de ação dos endectocidas e a praticidade de aplicação das suas formulações pour-on são fatores que têm estimulado uma maior frequência de utilização destes produtos na criação de bovinos. Neste estudo, avaliou-se a eficácia anti-helmíntica da ivermectina, administrada via pour-on, 500mcgkg-1, contra nematódeos de bovinos provenientes de diferentes rebanhos. Foram adquiridos 12 bezerros de cada um dos quatro rebanhos selecionados. Todos os 48 bezerros utilizados apresentavam médias de ovos por grama de fezes (OPG) maiores que 500, considerando-se três contagens consecutivas. Na sequencia, os animais de cada rebanho foram divididos em dois grupos de seis bovinos cada, sendo um tratado com ivermectina 500mcgkg-1 via pour-on e outro mantido como controle. Quatorze dias depois do tratamento, os bovinos foram submetidos à eutanásia para contagem de endoparasitas. A ivermectina demonstrou resultados nulos de eficácia contra H. placei nos quatro rebanhos. Contra C. punctata, tal formulação teve eficácia nula nos rebanhos provenientes de Jaboticabal,SP, e de Formiga,MG, e eficácias de 75,8% e 58,4% nos rebanhos provenientes de São José do Rio Pardo,SP, e de São Sebastião do Paraíso,MG, respectivamente. Valores de eficácia de 94,2% (Jaboticabal), 0,0% (São José do Rio Pardo), 94,2% (Formiga) e 39,2% (São Sebastião do Paraíso) foram detectados contra O. radiatum. Com base nos resultados encontrados, pode-se concluir que as quatro populações de Haemonchus placei e de Cooperia punctata avaliadas foram resistentes à ivermectina, administrada via pour-on, 500mcgkg-1. Foram observadas cepas de Oesophagostomum radiatum resistentes à ivermectina em dois dos quatro rebanhos testados.

          Translated abstract

          The broad spectrum of endectocides and the easy use mode of their pour-on formulations are factors that have stimulated a higher frequency of use these drugs in cattle. In this study was evaluated the efficacy of ivermectin pour-on using the dose of 500mcgkg-1, against nematodes in naturally infected cattle from different herds. Twelve calves were brought from each of the four farms selected. All the 48 calves used showed mean of eggs per gram of feces (EPG) greater than 500 considering three consecutive counts. Subsequently, animals from each herd were divided into two groups of six animals each, one treated pour-on with ivermectin 500mcgkg-1 and other kept as untreated control. Calves were euthanized 14 days after treatment for counting the endoparasites. Ivermectin showed null effect against H. placei in all the herds evaluated. The drug was also ineffective against C. punctata in the herds from Jaboticabal,SP and Formiga,MG, and reached efficacy of 75.8% and 58.4% in herds from São José do Rio Pardo,SP and São Sebastião do Paraíso,MG, respectively. Efficacies of 94.2% (Jaboticabal), 0.0% (São José do Rio Pardo), 94.2% (Formiga) and 39.2% (São Sebastião do Paraíso) were detectedagainst O. radiatum. Based on these results obtained on the present study, the four populations of Haemonchus placei and Cooperia punctata evaluated were resistant to ivermectin pour-on using a dose of 500mcgkg-1. Ivermectin-resistant strains of Oesophagostomum radiatum were found in two of the four herds evaluated.

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          Most cited references28

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          International harmonisation of anthelmintic efficacy guidelines.

          The "International Co-operation on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Veterinary Medicinal Products (VICH)" is an international programme of co-operation between regulatory authorities and the animal health industries of the European Union, Japan, and the United States of America which aims to harmonise the technical requirements for the registration of veterinary medicinal products. Australia and New Zealand participate as active observers. The objective of the present paper is to present the guidelines established by the working group on Anthelmintic Efficacy Guidelines: (1) efficacy of anthelmintics: general requirements (VICH GL7); (2) efficacy of anthelmintics: specific recommendations for bovines (VICH GL12); (3) efficacy of anthelmintics: specific recommendations for ovines (VICH GL13); (4) efficacy of anthelmintics: specific recommendations for caprines (VICH GL14). These guidelines do not consist of rigid stipulations, but make clear recommendations on the minimal standards needed. To the veterinary profession, livestock producers and animal owners, harmonisation should mean quicker access to safer and more effective veterinary anthelmintics. In general, products should be relatively more affordable because of the reduction in registration costs and efficient use of resources by the regulatory authorities.
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            Geometric means provide a biased efficacy result when conducting a faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT).

            The process of conducting a faecal egg count reduction test was simulated to examine whether arithmetic or geometric means offer the best estimate of efficacy in a situation where the true efficacy is known. Two components of sample variation were simulated: selecting hosts from the general population which was modelled by the negative binomial distribution (NBD), and taking an aliquot of faeces from the selected host to estimate the worm egg count by assuming a Poisson distribution of sample counts. Geometric mean counts were determined by adding a constant (C) to each count prior to log transformation, C was set at 25, 12 or 1. Ten thousand Monte Carlo simulations were run to estimate mean efficacy, the 2.5% (lower) and the 97.5% (upper) percentile based on arithmetic or geometric means. Arithmetic means best estimated efficacy for all different levels of worm aggregation. For moderate levels of aggregation and with C=1 the geometric mean substantially overestimated efficacy. The bias was reduced if C was increased to 25 but the results were no better than those based on arithmetic means. For very high levels of aggregation (over-dispersed populations) the geometric mean underestimated efficacy regardless of the size of C. It is recommended that the guidelines on anthelmintic resistance be revised to advocate the use of arithmetic means to estimate efficacy.
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              Cooperia punctata: effect on cattle productivity?

              Cooperia spp. have become the most prevalent parasites in United States cow/calf operations as observed in the USDA NAHMS (National Animal Health Monitoring System) Beef Cow/Calf survey in 2008. This is at least in part due to the widespread use of macrocyclic lactones that have recently been shown to have a reduced activity against these parasites. The effects of Cooperia spp. on cattle productivity are largely unknown. This study was conducted to assess their effect upon cattle housed under conditions found in American feedlots. Two hundred yearling calves (average weight 460 lb/209 kg) were acquired from northwestern Arkansas and northeastern Oklahoma and were vaccinated and dewormed upon arrival at the feedlot. Animals were comingled and preconditioned for approximately one month, and were fed a standard growing ration throughout the study. Calves were randomly divided into two groups (n=80, infected and control) and each group was further divided into two replicate pens (n=40). Calves from the two infected pens were orally inoculated with a gavage of 1 × 10(5) and 0.825 × 10(5) infective larvae of a recent isolate of Cooperia punctata on day 0 and 14, respectively, with the two control pens receiving a similar volume of tap water. Data collected included biweekly fecal egg counts, daily individual feed consumption and weight gain over the 60-day test period. The presence of C. punctata (>99% of recovered worms) was confirmed by necropsy and recovery from the small intestine on days 35 and 60 post infection (PI) in a subset of animals. Egg counts were positive by day 14 PI and remained at numbers similar to values seen in field studies. The control group gained weight 7.5% more rapidly (p=0.02) than infected animals (3.24 lb/1.47 kg per day vs. 3.0 lb/1.36 kg per day, respectively). The Cooperia-infected calves also consumed 1.5 lb (0.68 kg) less dry feed per day than the control animals (p=0.02). These data suggest that C. punctata has a deleterious effect on both appetite and nutrient uptake or utilization. At necropsy (days 35 and 60), the draining mesenteric lymph nodes of infected animals were increased in size and the small intestinal mucosa was thickened and covered with a thick layer of mucus in the infected animals. The most prominent histological changes in the Cooperia- infected animals included a moderate increase in the number of intraepithelial lymphocytes and globule leukocytes, as well as aggregates of eosinophils within the lower lamina propria. The only significant difference was an increase in the goblet cell density at day 60. Anthelmintic sensitivity/resistance of the Cooperia isolate used was determined by treatment of one pen of infected calves with a macrocyclic lactone and the other pen with a benzimidazole at the completion of the study. The macrocyclic lactone treatment (n=40) did not remove the parasites (FECRT=8.8%), while treatment with a benzimidazole was very effective (FECRT=98.1%). This study demonstrated that C. punctata has a significant effect on cattle productivity, both reduced weight gain and decreased feed intake compared to controls.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
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                Journal
                cr
                Ciência Rural
                Cienc. Rural
                Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (Santa Maria )
                1678-4596
                May 2014
                : 44
                : 5
                : 847-853
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Universidade Estadual Paulista Brazil
                Article
                S0103-84782014000500014
                10.1590/S0103-84782014000500014
                fe6603d5-f88b-4041-8a82-dea936f0bdd6

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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                SciELO Brazil

                Self URI (journal page): http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_serial&pid=0103-8478&lng=en
                Categories
                AGRONOMY

                Horticulture
                nematódeos gastrintestinais,lactonas macrocíclicas,resistência múltipla,ruminantes,via tópica,ruminants,topically,gastrointestinal nematodes,macrocyclic lactones,multiple resistance

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