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      Dietary Protein, Metabolism, and Aging

      1 , 1 , 2

      Annual Review of Biochemistry

      Annual Reviews

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          Abstract

          Dietary restriction (DR), a moderate reduction in food intake, improves health during aging and extends life span across multiple species. Specific nutrients, rather than overall calories, mediate the effects of DR, with protein and specific amino acids (AAs) playing a key role. Modulations of single dietary AAs affect traits including growth, reproduction, physiology, health, and longevity in animals. Epidemiological data in humans also link the quality and quantity of dietary proteins to long-term health. Intricate nutrient-sensing pathways fine tune the metabolic responses to dietary AAs in a highly conserved manner. In turn, these metabolic responses can affect the onset of insulin resistance, obesity, neurodegenerative disease, and other age-related diseases. In this review we discuss how AA requirements are shaped and how ingested AAs regulate a spectrum of homeostatic processes. Finally, we highlight the resulting opportunity to develop nutritional strategies to improve human health during aging.

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          Most cited references 101

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          Bidirectional transport of amino acids regulates mTOR and autophagy.

          Amino acids are required for activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase which regulates protein translation, cell growth, and autophagy. Cell surface transporters that allow amino acids to enter the cell and signal to mTOR are unknown. We show that cellular uptake of L-glutamine and its subsequent rapid efflux in the presence of essential amino acids (EAA) is the rate-limiting step that activates mTOR. L-glutamine uptake is regulated by SLC1A5 and loss of SLC1A5 function inhibits cell growth and activates autophagy. The molecular basis for L-glutamine sensitivity is due to SLC7A5/SLC3A2, a bidirectional transporter that regulates the simultaneous efflux of L-glutamine out of cells and transport of L-leucine/EAA into cells. Certain tumor cell lines with high basal cellular levels of L-glutamine bypass the need for L-glutamine uptake and are primed for mTOR activation. Thus, L-glutamine flux regulates mTOR, translation and autophagy to coordinate cell growth and proliferation.
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            Sestrin2 is a leucine sensor for the mTORC1 pathway.

            Leucine is a proteogenic amino acid that also regulates many aspects of mammalian physiology, in large part by activating the mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) protein kinase, a master growth controller. Amino acids signal to mTORC1 through the Rag guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases). Several factors regulate the Rags, including GATOR1, aGTPase-activating protein; GATOR2, a positive regulator of unknown function; and Sestrin2, a GATOR2-interacting protein that inhibits mTORC1 signaling. We find that leucine, but not arginine, disrupts the Sestrin2-GATOR2 interaction by binding to Sestrin2 with a dissociation constant of 20 micromolar, which is the leucine concentration that half-maximally activates mTORC1. The leucine-binding capacity of Sestrin2 is required for leucine to activate mTORC1 in cells. These results indicate that Sestrin2 is a leucine sensor for the mTORC1 pathway.
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              Amino acids and immune function.

               Long Yin,  Peng Li,  Defa Li (2007)
              A deficiency of dietary protein or amino acids has long been known to impair immune function and increase the susceptibility of animals and humans to infectious disease. However, only in the past 15 years have the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms begun to unfold. Protein malnutrition reduces concentrations of most amino acids in plasma. Findings from recent studies indicate an important role for amino acids in immune responses by regulating: (1) the activation of T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, natural killer cells and macrophages; (2) cellular redox state, gene expression and lymphocyte proliferation; and (3) the production of antibodies, cytokines and other cytotoxic substances. Increasing evidence shows that dietary supplementation of specific amino acids to animals and humans with malnutrition and infectious disease enhances the immune status, thereby reducing morbidity and mortality. Arginine, glutamine and cysteine precursors are the best prototypes. Because of a negative impact of imbalance and antagonism among amino acids on nutrient intake and utilisation, care should be exercised in developing effective strategies of enteral or parenteral provision for maximum health benefits. Such measures should be based on knowledge about the biochemistry and physiology of amino acids, their roles in immune responses, nutritional and pathological states of individuals and expected treatment outcomes. New knowledge about the metabolism of amino acids in leucocytes is critical for the development of effective means to prevent and treat immunodeficient diseases. These nutrients hold great promise in improving health and preventing infectious diseases in animals and humans.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Annual Review of Biochemistry
                Annu. Rev. Biochem.
                Annual Reviews
                0066-4154
                1545-4509
                June 02 2016
                June 02 2016
                : 85
                : 1
                : 5-34
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Max Planck Institute for Biology of Ageing, Department of Biological Mechanisms of Ageing, Cologne 50931, Germany; email: ,
                [2 ]Institute of Healthy Ageing and Department of Genetics, Evolution, and Environment, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, United Kingdom
                Article
                10.1146/annurev-biochem-060815-014422
                27145842
                © 2016

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