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      Treatment with betablockers is associated with higher grey-scale median in carotid plaques

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          Abstract

          Background

          The presence of echolucent carotid plaques as defined by low ultrasound grey-scale median (GSM) is associated with a higher risk of stroke and myocardial infarction. Betablockers have shown possible anti-atherosclerotic effects. The aim of the present study was to determine if there is an association between carotid plaque GSM and treatment with betablockers.

          Methods

          The GSM of the carotid plaques of 350 patients who underwent carotid endarterectomy (CEA) for asymptomatic (n = 113) or symptomatic (n = 237) carotid disease was measured. Patients were divided in two groups based on the absence/presence of an on-going long-term ( i.e. at least 6 months) oral treatment with betablockers at the time of CEA.

          Results

          The prevalence and type of preoperative neurological symptoms were similar in the two groups. Patients with betablockers had more frequently arterial hypertension (P < .0001), diabetes (P = .035) and a higher BMI (P = .0004), while patients without betablockers were most frequently smokers (P = .017).

          Patients with betablockers revealed to have higher GSM (37.79 ± 25 vs 32.61 ± 23.50 P = .036). Echogenic plaques (i.e. with GSM > 30) showed to be more frequent in patients with betablockers also after correction for age, gender, the occurrence of preoperative symptoms, diabetes, hypertension, smoking and statins use (P = .024).

          Conclusions

          These results suggest the use of standardized ultrasound techniques as an important tool in evaluating the effect of anti-atherosclerotic medications and underline the need of.further prospective randomized studies on larger patient cohorts in order to confirm these results.

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          Most cited references 39

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          Effects of extended-release metoprolol succinate in patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery (POISE trial): a randomised controlled trial.

            (2008)
          Trials of beta blockers in patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery have reported conflicting results. This randomised controlled trial, done in 190 hospitals in 23 countries, was designed to investigate the effects of perioperative beta blockers. We randomly assigned 8351 patients with, or at risk of, atherosclerotic disease who were undergoing non-cardiac surgery to receive extended-release metoprolol succinate (n=4174) or placebo (n=4177), by a computerised randomisation phone service. Study treatment was started 2-4 h before surgery and continued for 30 days. Patients, health-care providers, data collectors, and outcome adjudicators were masked to treatment allocation. The primary endpoint was a composite of cardiovascular death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, and non-fatal cardiac arrest. Analyses were by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00182039. All 8351 patients were included in analyses; 8331 (99.8%) patients completed the 30-day follow-up. Fewer patients in the metoprolol group than in the placebo group reached the primary endpoint (244 [5.8%] patients in the metoprolol group vs 290 [6.9%] in the placebo group; hazard ratio 0.84, 95% CI 0.70-0.99; p=0.0399). Fewer patients in the metoprolol group than in the placebo group had a myocardial infarction (176 [4.2%] vs 239 [5.7%] patients; 0.73, 0.60-0.89; p=0.0017). However, there were more deaths in the metoprolol group than in the placebo group (129 [3.1%] vs 97 [2.3%] patients; 1.33, 1.03-1.74; p=0.0317). More patients in the metoprolol group than in the placebo group had a stroke (41 [1.0%] vs 19 [0.5%] patients; 2.17, 1.26-3.74; p=0.0053). Our results highlight the risk in assuming a perioperative beta-blocker regimen has benefit without substantial harm, and the importance and need for large randomised trials in the perioperative setting. Patients are unlikely to accept the risks associated with perioperative extended-release metoprolol.
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            The role of carotid arterial intima-media thickness in predicting clinical coronary events.

             Howard Hodis (1998)
            Carotid arterial intima-media thickness is used as a noninvasive surrogate end point to measure progression of atherosclerosis, but its relation to coronary events has not been fully explored. To determine whether carotid arterial intima-media thickness predicts coronary events. Long-term follow-up (average, 8.8 years) of a previously assembled cohort of persons who completed the 2-year Cholesterol Lowering Atherosclerosis Study, a randomized arterial imaging trial designed to study the effects of lipid lowering on progression of atherosclerosis. University-based ultrasonography laboratory. 146 men 40 to 59 years of age who had previously had coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Preintrusive atherosclerosis in the common carotid artery was evaluated every 6 months with B-mode ultrasonography, and intrusive atherosclerosis in the coronary arteries was evaluated at baseline and at 2 years with quantitative coronary angiography. After the trial, the incidences of coronary events (nonfatal acute myocardial infarction, coronary death, and coronary artery revascularization) were documented. For each 0.03-mm increase per year in carotid arterial intima-media thickness, the relative risk for nonfatal myocardial infarction or coronary death was 2.2 (95% CI, 1.4 to 3.6) and the relative risk for any coronary event was 3.1 (CI, 2.1 to 4.5) (P < 0.001). Absolute intima-media thickness was also related to risk for clinical coronary events (P < 0.02). Absolute thickness and progression in thickness predicted risk for coronary events beyond that predicted by coronary arterial measures of atherosclerosis and lipid measurements (P < 0.001). Noninvasive B-mode ultrasonographic measurement of progression of intima-media thickness in the distal common carotid artery is a useful surrogate end point for clinical coronary events.
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              • Article: not found

              Guidelines for pre-operative cardiac risk assessment and perioperative cardiac management in non-cardiac surgery.

               Stefan Hert,  ,   (2009)
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                giuseppe.asciutto@med.lu.se
                nunovdias@gmail.com
                ana.persson@med.lu.se
                jan.nilsson@med.lu.se
                migvdias@gmail.com
                Journal
                BMC Cardiovasc Disord
                BMC Cardiovasc Disord
                BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
                BioMed Central (London )
                1471-2261
                30 August 2014
                30 August 2014
                2014
                : 14
                : 1
                Affiliations
                [ ]Vascular Center Malmö-Lund, Skåne University Hospital, Ruth Lundskogs gata 10, 1st floor, Malmö, 205 02 Sweden
                [ ]Experimental Cardiovascular Research Unit, Clinical Research Center, Department of Clinical Sciences Malmö, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden
                [ ]Department of Cardiology, Skåne University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden
                Article
                758
                10.1186/1471-2261-14-111
                4156604
                25175336
                © Asciutto et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2014

                This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                Categories
                Research Article
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2014

                Cardiovascular Medicine

                carotid plaque, betablockers, grey-scale median, carotid artery

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