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      Static Characterization of the Driving, Normal and Stall Forces of a Double-Sided Moving-Permanent Magnet-Type Planar Actuator Based on Orthogonal Planar Windings

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          This work presents a study of the traction, normal and stall forces in a two-sided planar actuator with orthogonal planar windings and a mover that comprises two cars magnetically coupled to each other through two pairs of permanent magnets (PMs). There is no ferromagnetic armature core because of the permanent magnets array in the mover and orthogonal traction forces can be generated in order to move both cars jointly in any direction on a plane. The stall force is the minimal force necessary to break up the magnetic coupling between the two cars. When one of the cars is subjected to an external force through the x- or y-axis, the cars can become out of alignment with respect to each other and the planar actuator cannot work properly. The behavior of the forces was modelled by numerical and analytical methods and experimental results were obtained from tests carried out on a prototype. The average sensitivity of the measured static propulsion planar force along either axis is 4.48 N/A. With a 20-mm displacement between the cars along the direction of the x-axis and no armature current, a magnetic stall force of 17.26 N is produced through the same axis in order to restore the alignment of the two cars.

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          Overview of Analytical Models for the Design of Linear and Planar Motors

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            Modeling Ironless Permanent-Magnet Planar Actuator Structures

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              Magnet arrays for synchronous machines


                Author and article information

                [1 ]Post-Graduate Programme in Materials Engineering and Sustainable Processes, Lutheran University of Brazil, Canoas 92425-900, Brazil; marilia.amaralsilveira@
                [2 ]Post-Graduate Programme in Electrical Engineering, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre 90690-410, Brazil; marcos.susin@
                [3 ]Discipline of Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering, University of KwaZulu-Nata, Durbam 4041, South Africa; dorrelld@
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: aly.flores@ ; Tel.: +55-51-3308-4276
                Sensors (Basel)
                Sensors (Basel)
                Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)
                18 October 2018
                October 2018
                : 18
                : 10
                30340428 6211012 10.3390/s18103526 sensors-18-03526
                © 2018 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (



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