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      Developmentally regulated cleavage of tRNAs in the bacterium Streptomyces coelicolor

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          Abstract

          The ability to sense and respond to environmental and physiological signals is critical for the survival of the soil-dwelling Gram-positive bacterium Streptomyces coelicolor. Nutrient deprivation triggers the onset of a complex morphological differentiation process that involves the raising of aerial hyphae and formation of spore chains, and coincides with the production of a diverse array of clinically relevant antibiotics and other secondary metabolites. These processes are tightly regulated; however, the genes and signals involved have not been fully elucidated. Here, we report a novel tRNA cleavage event that follows the same temporal regulation as morphological and physiological differentiation, and is growth medium dependent. All tRNAs appear to be susceptible to cleavage; however, there appears to be a bias towards increased cleavage of those tRNAs that specify highly utilized codons. In contrast to what has been observed in eukaryotes, accumulation of tRNA halves in S. coelicolor is not significantly affected by amino acid starvation, and is also not affected by induction of the stringent response or inhibition of ribosome function. Mutants defective in aerial development and antibiotic production exhibit altered tRNA cleavage profiles relative to wild-type strains.

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          An abundant class of tiny RNAs with probable regulatory roles in Caenorhabditis elegans.

          Two small temporal RNAs (stRNAs), lin-4 and let-7, control developmental timing in Caenorhabditis elegans. We find that these two regulatory RNAs are members of a large class of 21- to 24-nucleotide noncoding RNAs, called microRNAs (miRNAs). We report on 55 previously unknown miRNAs in C. elegans. The miRNAs have diverse expression patterns during development: a let-7 paralog is temporally coexpressed with let-7; miRNAs encoded in a single genomic cluster are coexpressed during embryogenesis; and still other miRNAs are expressed constitutively throughout development. Potential orthologs of several of these miRNA genes were identified in Drosophila and human genomes. The abundance of these tiny RNAs, their expression patterns, and their evolutionary conservation imply that, as a class, miRNAs have broad regulatory functions in animals.
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            5'-to-3' exoribonuclease activity in bacteria: role of RNase J1 in rRNA maturation and 5' stability of mRNA.

            Although the primary mechanism of eukaryotic messenger RNA decay is exoribonucleolytic degradation in the 5'-to-3' orientation, it has been widely accepted that Bacteria can only degrade RNAs with the opposite polarity, i.e. 3' to 5'. Here we show that maturation of the 5' side of Bacillus subtilis 16S ribosomal RNA occurs via a 5'-to-3' exonucleolytic pathway, catalyzed by the widely distributed essential ribonuclease RNase J1. The presence of a 5'-to-3' exoribonuclease activity in B. subtilis suggested an explanation for the phenomenon whereby mRNAs in this organism are stabilized for great distances downstream of "roadblocks" such as stalled ribosomes or stable secondary structures, whereas upstream sequences are never detected. We show that a 30S ribosomal subunit bound to a Shine Dalgarno-like element (Stab-SD) in the cryIIIA mRNA blocks exonucleolytic progression of RNase J1, accounting for the stabilizing effect of this element in vivo.
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              Starvation-induced cleavage of the tRNA anticodon loop in Tetrahymena thermophila.

              Amino acid deprivation triggers dramatic physiological responses in all organisms, altering both the synthesis and destruction of RNA and protein. Here we describe, using the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila, a previously unidentified response to amino acid deprivation in which mature transfer RNA (tRNA) is cleaved in the anticodon loop. We observed that anticodon loop cleavage affects a small fraction of most or all tRNA sequences. Accumulation of cleaved tRNA is temporally coordinated with the morphological and metabolic changes of adaptation to starvation. The starvation-induced endonucleolytic cleavage activity targets tRNAs that have undergone maturation by 5' and 3' end processing and base modification. Curiously, the majority of cleaved tRNAs lack the 3' terminal CCA nucleotides required for aminoacylation. Starvation-induced tRNA cleavage is inhibited in the presence of essential amino acids, independent of the persistence of other starvation-induced responses. Our findings suggest that anticodon loop cleavage may reduce the accumulation of uncharged tRNAs as part of a specific response induced by amino acid starvation.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nucleic Acids Res
                Nucleic Acids Res
                nar
                nar
                Nucleic Acids Research
                Oxford University Press
                0305-1048
                1362-4962
                February 2008
                15 December 2007
                15 December 2007
                : 36
                : 3
                : 732-741
                Affiliations
                1Department of Biology, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, ON L8S 4K1, Canada and 2Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Watson School of Biological Sciences, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, 1 Bungtown Road, Cold Spring Harbor, NY 11724, USA
                Author notes
                *To whom correspondence should be addressed. (905) 525-9140 ×24225(905) 522-6066 melliot@ 123456mcmaster.ca
                Article
                gkm1096
                10.1093/nar/gkm1096
                2241913
                18084030
                © 2007 The Author(s)

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/2.0/uk/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                RNA

                Genetics

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