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      Drug Design, Development and Therapy (submit here)

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      Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate Provides Protection Against Alzheimer’s Disease-Induced Learning and Memory Impairments in Rats


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          Recent evidence has highlighted the anti-inflammatory properties of the constituent of Green Tea Polyphenols (GTP), epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) which has been suggested to exert a neuroprotective effect on Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The current study aimed to elucidate the effect of EGCG on memory function in rats with AD.


          AD rat models were initially established through an injection with Aβ 25–35 solution, followed by gavage with EGCG at varying doses to determine the effect of EGCG on learning and cognitive deficits in AD. Morris water maze test was conducted to evaluate the spatial memory function of the rats. Immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis were performed to identify Tau phosphorylation. The expression of β-site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) mRNA and protein in rat hippocampus was measured by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and Western blot analysis. Acetylcholinesterase (AchE) activity, Aβ1-42 expression and Ach content were all detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).


          EGCG intervention brought about a decrease in the escape latency period while increasing the time at the target quadrant among the AD rats. EGCG decreased the hyperphosphorylation of Tau in hippocampus. BACE1 expression and activity as well as the expression of Aβ1-42 were suppressed by EGCG. Moreover, EGCG promoted Ach content by diminishing the activity of AchE.


          The current study demonstrates that EGCG may diminish the hyperphosphorylation of the Tau protein, downregulate BACE1 and Aβ1-42 expression to improve the antioxidant system and learning and memory function of rats with AD.

          Most cited references45

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          The neuropathological diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease

          Alzheimer’s disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disease most often associated with memory deficits and cognitive decline, although less common clinical presentations are increasingly recognized. The cardinal pathological features of the disease have been known for more than one hundred years, and today the presence of these amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles are still required for a pathological diagnosis. Alzheimer’s disease is the most common cause of dementia globally. There remain no effective treatment options for the great majority of patients, and the primary causes of the disease are unknown except in a small number of familial cases driven by genetic mutations. Confounding efforts to develop effective diagnostic tools and disease-modifying therapies is the realization that Alzheimer’s disease is a mixed proteinopathy (amyloid and tau) frequently associated with other age-related processes such as cerebrovascular disease and Lewy body disease. Defining the relationships between and interdependence of various co-pathologies remains an active area of investigation. This review outlines etiologically-linked pathologic features of Alzheimer’s disease, as well as those that are inevitable findings of uncertain significance, such as granulovacuolar degeneration and Hirano bodies. Other disease processes that are frequent, but not inevitable, are also discussed, including pathologic processes that can clinically mimic Alzheimer’s disease. These include cerebrovascular disease, Lewy body disease, TDP-43 proteinopathies and argyrophilic grain disease. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of Alzheimer’s disease pathology, its defining pathologic substrates and the related pathologies that can affect diagnosis and treatment. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (10.1186/s13024-019-0333-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
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            Alzheimer's disease.

            Alzheimer's disease, the commonest cause of dementia, is a growing global health concern with huge implications for individuals and society. In this review, current understanding of the epidemiology, genetics, pathology and pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease is outlined, before its clinical presentation and current treatment strategies are discussed. Finally, the review discusses how our enhanced understanding of Alzheimer pathogenesis, including the recognition of a protracted preclinical phase, is informing new therapeutic strategies with the aim of moving from treatment to prevention.
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              Oxidative stress and the amyloid beta peptide in Alzheimer’s disease

              Oxidative stress is known to play an important role in the pathogenesis of a number of diseases. In particular, it is linked to the etiology of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), an age-related neurodegenerative disease and the most common cause of dementia in the elderly. Histopathological hallmarks of AD are intracellular neurofibrillary tangles and extracellular formation of senile plaques composed of the amyloid-beta peptide (Aβ) in aggregated form along with metal-ions such as copper, iron or zinc. Redox active metal ions, as for example copper, can catalyze the production of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) when bound to the amyloid-β (Aβ). The ROS thus produced, in particular the hydroxyl radical which is the most reactive one, may contribute to oxidative damage on both the Aβ peptide itself and on surrounding molecule (proteins, lipids, …). This review highlights the existing link between oxidative stress and AD, and the consequences towards the Aβ peptide and surrounding molecules in terms of oxidative damage. In addition, the implication of metal ions in AD, their interaction with the Aβ peptide and redox properties leading to ROS production are discussed, along with both in vitro and in vivo oxidation of the Aβ peptide, at the molecular level.

                Author and article information

                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                13 May 2021
                : 15
                : 2013-2024
                [1 ]Department of Neurology, The Second Hospital of Jilin University , Changchun, 130041, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Jia Fan Department of Neurology, The Second Hospital of Jilin University , No. 218, Ziqiang Street, Changchun, 130041, Jilin Province, People’s Republic of ChinaTel +86-13843028656 Email fanjia@jlu.edu.cn
                © 2021 Nan et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                : 15 November 2020
                : 26 February 2021
                Page count
                Figures: 7, References: 45, Pages: 12
                Funded by: Education Department of Jilin Province;
                This study was supported by the Education Department of Jilin Province (No. JJKH20190060KJ).
                Original Research

                Pharmacology & Pharmaceutical medicine
                aβ1-42,ach,ache,bace1,epigallocatechin-3-gallate,learning and memory function,tau hyperphosphorylation


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