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      Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate Provides Protection Against Alzheimer’s Disease-Induced Learning and Memory Impairments in Rats

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          Abstract

          Purpose

          Recent evidence has highlighted the anti-inflammatory properties of the constituent of Green Tea Polyphenols (GTP), epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) which has been suggested to exert a neuroprotective effect on Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The current study aimed to elucidate the effect of EGCG on memory function in rats with AD.

          Methods

          AD rat models were initially established through an injection with Aβ 25–35 solution, followed by gavage with EGCG at varying doses to determine the effect of EGCG on learning and cognitive deficits in AD. Morris water maze test was conducted to evaluate the spatial memory function of the rats. Immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis were performed to identify Tau phosphorylation. The expression of β-site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) mRNA and protein in rat hippocampus was measured by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and Western blot analysis. Acetylcholinesterase (AchE) activity, Aβ1-42 expression and Ach content were all detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).

          Results

          EGCG intervention brought about a decrease in the escape latency period while increasing the time at the target quadrant among the AD rats. EGCG decreased the hyperphosphorylation of Tau in hippocampus. BACE1 expression and activity as well as the expression of Aβ1-42 were suppressed by EGCG. Moreover, EGCG promoted Ach content by diminishing the activity of AchE.

          Conclusion

          The current study demonstrates that EGCG may diminish the hyperphosphorylation of the Tau protein, downregulate BACE1 and Aβ1-42 expression to improve the antioxidant system and learning and memory function of rats with AD.

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          Most cited references 45

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          Alzheimer's disease.

          Alzheimer's disease, the commonest cause of dementia, is a growing global health concern with huge implications for individuals and society. In this review, current understanding of the epidemiology, genetics, pathology and pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease is outlined, before its clinical presentation and current treatment strategies are discussed. Finally, the review discusses how our enhanced understanding of Alzheimer pathogenesis, including the recognition of a protracted preclinical phase, is informing new therapeutic strategies with the aim of moving from treatment to prevention.
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            Potent anti-amyloidogenic and fibril-destabilizing effects of polyphenols in vitro: implications for the prevention and therapeutics of Alzheimer's disease.

            Cerebral deposition of amyloid beta-peptide (Abeta) in the brain is an invariant feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD). A consistent protective effect of wine consumption on AD has been documented by epidemiological studies. In the present study, we used fluorescence spectroscopy with thioflavin T and electron microscopy to examine the effects of wine-related polyphenols (myricetin, morin, quercetin, kaempferol (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin) on the formation, extension, and destabilization of beta-amyloid fibrils (fAbeta) at pH 7.5 at 37 degrees C in vitro. All examined polyphenols dose-dependently inhibited formation of fAbeta from fresh Abeta(1-40) and Abeta(1-42), as well as their extension. Moreover, these polyphenols dose-dependently destabilized preformed fAbetas. The overall activity of the molecules examined was in the order of: myricetin = morin = quercetin > kaempferol > (+)-catechin = (-)-epicatechin. The effective concentrations (EC50) of myricetin, morin and quercetin for the formation, extension and destabilization of fAbetas were in the order of 0.1-1 micro m. In cell culture experiments, myricetin-treated fAbeta were suggested to be less toxic than intact fAbeta, as demonstrated by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Although the mechanisms by which these polyphenols inhibit fAbeta formation from Abeta, and destabilize pre-formed fAbetain vitro are still unclear, polyphenols could be a key molecule for the development of preventives and therapeutics for AD.
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              Oxidative stress and the amyloid beta peptide in Alzheimer’s disease

              Oxidative stress is known to play an important role in the pathogenesis of a number of diseases. In particular, it is linked to the etiology of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), an age-related neurodegenerative disease and the most common cause of dementia in the elderly. Histopathological hallmarks of AD are intracellular neurofibrillary tangles and extracellular formation of senile plaques composed of the amyloid-beta peptide (Aβ) in aggregated form along with metal-ions such as copper, iron or zinc. Redox active metal ions, as for example copper, can catalyze the production of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) when bound to the amyloid-β (Aβ). The ROS thus produced, in particular the hydroxyl radical which is the most reactive one, may contribute to oxidative damage on both the Aβ peptide itself and on surrounding molecule (proteins, lipids, …). This review highlights the existing link between oxidative stress and AD, and the consequences towards the Aβ peptide and surrounding molecules in terms of oxidative damage. In addition, the implication of metal ions in AD, their interaction with the Aβ peptide and redox properties leading to ROS production are discussed, along with both in vitro and in vivo oxidation of the Aβ peptide, at the molecular level.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                dddt
                dddt
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove
                1177-8881
                13 May 2021
                2021
                : 15
                : 2013-2024
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Neurology, The Second Hospital of Jilin University , Changchun, 130041, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Jia Fan Department of Neurology, The Second Hospital of Jilin University , No. 218, Ziqiang Street, Changchun, 130041, Jilin Province, People’s Republic of ChinaTel +86-13843028656 Email fanjia@jlu.edu.cn
                Article
                289473
                10.2147/DDDT.S289473
                8128347
                © 2021 Nan et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 7, References: 45, Pages: 12
                Funding
                Funded by: Education Department of Jilin Province;
                This study was supported by the Education Department of Jilin Province (No. JJKH20190060KJ).
                Categories
                Original Research

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