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      An Oral Whole-Cell Killed Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae Immunotherapeutic For The Prevention Of Acute Exacerbations Of Chronic Airway Disease

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          Abstract

          In subjects with chronic bronchitis, protection against acute bronchitis following oral administration of a whole-cell killed nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) preparation was demonstrated in the mid-1980s. Subsequently, studies aiming to validate clinical efficacy of this oral treatment were complicated by a number of factors, including the modification of clinical definitions, the implications of which were not recognized at that time. The objective of this review is to integrate our pre-clinical and clinical research in this field conducted over the past 30 years to demonstrate the evolution of the idea of communication between mucosal surfaces through the common mucosal immune system and the development of an effective oral NTHi immunotherapy. Our earliest studies recruited subjects with chronic sputum production and high levels of culture-positive sputum for Gram-negative bacteria but by 2000, the clinical diagnostic focus had switched from “chronic bronchitis” to “chronic obstructive pulmonary disease” (COPD), which was functionally defined using spirometry. This change led to variable clinical trial results, confirming the importance of chronic sputum production and culture-positive sputum. Additional conditioning factors such as patient age and gender were influential in study populations with low culture-positive sputum production. Through this period, studies in human and in rodent models provided new insights into airway protection mechanisms and the pathogenesis of airway inflammation. Key findings were the importance of a dysbiosis within the airway microbiome, and the critical role of an interdependence between the bronchus and the gut, with a Peyer’s patch-dependent extra-bronchus “loop” controlling the composition of the bronchus microbiome. Within this context, intercurrent virus infections initiate a microbiome-dependant hypersensitivity reaction involving Peyer’s patch-derived Th17 cells. We conclude that whole-cell killed NTHi immunotherapy has consistent and significant benefits when examined in the context of changing clinical disease definitions, age and gender, and has the potential to change the natural history of chronic airway disease.

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          Most cited references 24

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          Efficacy of high-dose versus standard-dose influenza vaccine in older adults.

          As compared with a standard-dose vaccine, a high-dose, trivalent, inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV3-HD) improves antibody responses to influenza among adults 65 years of age or older. This study evaluated whether IIV3-HD also improves protection against laboratory-confirmed influenza illness.
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            The Microbiome and the Respiratory Tract.

            Although the notion that "the normal lung is free from bacteria" remains common in textbooks, it is virtually always stated without citation or argument. The lungs are constantly exposed to diverse communities of microbes from the oropharynx and other sources, and over the past decade, novel culture-independent techniques of microbial identification have revealed that the lungs, previously considered sterile in health, harbor diverse communities of microbes. In this review, we describe the topography and population dynamics of the respiratory tract, both in health and as altered by acute and chronic lung disease. We provide a survey of current techniques of sampling, sequencing, and analysis of respiratory microbiota and review technical challenges and controversies in the field. We review and synthesize what is known about lung microbiota in various diseases and identify key lessons learned across disease states.
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              Terminology: nomenclature of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue.

              Stimulation of mucosal immunity has great potential in vaccinology and immunotherapy. However, the mucosal immune system is more complex than the systemic counterpart, both in terms of anatomy (inductive and effector tissues) and effectors (cells and molecules). Therefore, immunologists entering this field need a precise terminology as a crucial means of communication. Abbreviations for mucosal immune-function molecules related to the secretory immunoglobulin A system were defined by the Society for Mucosal Immunolgy Nomenclature Committee in 1997, and are briefly recapitulated in this article. In addition, we recommend and justify standard nomenclature and abbreviations for discrete mucosal immune-cell compartments, belonging to, and beyond, mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                COPD
                copd
                International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
                Dove
                1176-9106
                1178-2005
                25 October 2019
                2019
                : 14
                : 2423-2431
                Affiliations
                [1 ]School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Newcastle , Newcastle, NSW, Australia
                [2 ]School of Medicine, Menzies Health Institute Queensland, Griffith University, Gold Coast Campus , Gold Coast, QLD, Australia
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Allan W Cripps School of Medicine, Menzies Health Institute Queensland, Griffith University, Gold Coast Campus , Gold Coast, QLD4222, AustraliaTel +61 7 56780321 Email allan.cripps@griffith.edu.au
                Article
                217317
                10.2147/COPD.S217317
                6821045
                © 2019 Clancy and Cripps.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 3, References: 28, Pages: 9
                Funding
                Funded by: No funding
                No funding was received for this review.
                Categories
                Review

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