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      Improvement In Self-Reported Physical Functioning With Tiotropium/Olodaterol In Central And Eastern European COPD Patients

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          Reduced physical activity is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in patients with COPD. Studies suggest that treatment with the long-acting muscarinic antagonist tiotropium and the long-acting β 2-agonist olodaterol increases exercise capacity. This study assessed the effects of a fixed-dose combination (FDC) of tiotropium/olodaterol (delivered via Respimat ®) on physical functioning in patients with stable COPD in a “real-world setting”.


          An international, open-label, single-arm, non-interventional study conducted in nine countries measuring changes in self-reported physical functioning in COPD patients treated with tiotropium/olodaterol 5/5 μg FDC for approximately 6 weeks. The primary endpoint was therapeutic success, defined as a minimum 10-point increase in the 10-question Physical Functioning Questionnaire (PF-10) score. Secondary endpoints included absolute change in PF-10 from Visit 1 to Visit 2, patient general condition (measured by Physician’s Global Evaluation score) and patient satisfaction with the treatment and device (assessed by Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire at the end of the study period).


          Therapeutic success was observed in 67.8% of 7218 patients (95% CI 66.7, 68.8) in the final analysis set after approximately 6 weeks of treatment with tiotropium/olodaterol. Mean change in PF-10 score between Visit 1 and Visit 2 was 16.6 points (95% CI 16.2, 17.0). Therapeutic success was 64.3% (95% CI 63.0–65.6%) in patients with infrequent (≤1) and 76.1% (95% CI 74.3–77.9%) in patients with frequent (≥2) exacerbations (p<0.0001). Patient general condition improved as indicated by an improvement in Physician’s Global Evaluation scores between visits. Most patients were very satisfied or satisfied with tiotropium/olodaterol treatment in general (81%), reported inhalation satisfaction (85%), and satisfactory handling of the device (84%). 1.3% of patients reported an investigator-defined drug-related adverse event.


          Treatment with tiotropium/olodaterol led to an improvement in self-reported physical functioning in patients with COPD.

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          Randomized, controlled trials, observational studies, and the hierarchy of research designs.

          In the hierarchy of research designs, the results of randomized, controlled trials are considered to be evidence of the highest grade, whereas observational studies are viewed as having less validity because they reportedly overestimate treatment effects. We used published meta-analyses to identify randomized clinical trials and observational studies that examined the same clinical topics. We then compared the results of the original reports according to the type of research design. A search of the Medline data base for articles published in five major medical journals from 1991 to 1995 identified meta-analyses of randomized, controlled trials and meta-analyses of either cohort or case-control studies that assessed the same intervention. For each of five topics, summary estimates and 95 percent confidence intervals were calculated on the basis of data from the individual randomized, controlled trials and the individual observational studies. For the five clinical topics and 99 reports evaluated, the average results of the observational studies were remarkably similar to those of the randomized, controlled trials. For example, analysis of 13 randomized, controlled trials of the effectiveness of bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccine in preventing active tuberculosis yielded a relative risk of 0.49 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.34 to 0.70) among vaccinated patients, as compared with an odds ratio of 0.50 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.39 to 0.65) from 10 case-control studies. In addition, the range of the point estimates for the effect of vaccination was wider for the randomized, controlled trials (0.20 to 1.56) than for the observational studies (0.17 to 0.84). The results of well-designed observational studies (with either a cohort or a case-control design) do not systematically overestimate the magnitude of the effects of treatment as compared with those in randomized, controlled trials on the same topic.
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            Characteristics of physical activities in daily life in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

            Quantification of physical activities in daily life in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease has increasing clinical interest. However, detailed comparison with healthy subjects is not available. Furthermore, it is unknown whether time spent actively during daily life is related to lung function, muscle force, or maximal and functional exercise capacity. We assessed physical activities and movement intensity with the DynaPort activity monitor in 50 patients (age 64 +/- 7 years; FEV1 43 +/- 18% predicted) and 25 healthy elderly individuals (age 66 +/- 5 years). Patients showed lower walking time (44 +/- 26 vs. 81 +/- 26 minutes/day), standing time (191 +/- 99 vs. 295 +/- 109 minutes/day), and movement intensity during walking (1.8 +/- 0.3 vs. 2.4 +/- 0.5 m/second2; p < 0.0001 for all), as well as higher sitting time (374 +/- 139 vs. 306 +/- 108 minutes/day; p = 0.04) and lying time (87 +/- 97 vs. 29 +/- 33 minutes/day; p = 0.004). Walking time was highly correlated with the 6-minute walking test (r = 0.76, p < 0.0001) and more modestly to maximal exercise capacity, lung function, and muscle force (0.28 < r < 0.64, p < 0.05). Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are markedly inactive in daily life. Functional exercise capacity is the strongest correlate of physical activities in daily life.
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              Physical activity in patients with COPD.

              The present study aimed to measure physical activity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) to: 1) identify the disease stage at which physical activity becomes limited; 2) investigate the relationship of clinical characteristics with physical activity; 3) evaluate the predictive power of clinical characteristics identifying very inactive patients; and 4) analyse the reliability of physical activity measurements. In total, 163 patients with COPD (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) stage I-IV; BODE (body mass index, airway obstruction, dyspnoea, exercise capacity) index score 0-10) and 29 patients with chronic bronchitis (normal spirometry; former GOLD stage 0) wore activity monitors that recorded steps per day, minutes of at least moderate activity, and physical activity levels for 5 days (3 weekdays plus Saturday and Sunday). Compared with patients with chronic bronchitis, steps per day, minutes of at least moderate activity and physical activity levels were reduced from GOLD stage II/BODE score 1, GOLD stage III/BODE score 3/4 and from GOLD stage III/BODE score 1, respectively. Reliability of physical activity measurements improved with the number of measured days and with higher GOLD stages. Moderate relationships were observed between clinical characteristics and physical activity. GOLD stages III and IV best predicted very inactive patients. Physical activity is reduced in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease from Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease stage II/ body mass index, airway obstruction, dyspnoea, exercise capacity score 1. Clinical characteristics of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease only incompletely reflect their physical activity.

                Author and article information

                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
                11 October 2019
                : 14
                : 2343-2354
                [1 ]Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Karl-Landsteiner-Institute for Lung Research and Pulmonary Oncology , Krankenhaus Nord – Klinik Floridsdorf, Vienna, Austria
                [2 ]Lung Centre/Pneumology Department, University Hospital Basel , Basel, Switzerland
                [3 ]Pneumological Outpatient Department, MephaCentrum, a.s ., Ostrava-Poruba, Czech Republic
                [4 ]Biostatistics and Data Sciences, Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Inc ., Ridgefield, CT, USA
                [5 ]Respiratory TA, Boehringer Ingelheim RCV GmbH & Co. KG , Vienna, Austria
                [6 ]Medical Affairs Regional Center, Boehringer Ingelheim RCV GmbH & Co. KG , Vienna, Austria
                [7 ]Elizabeth Nursing Home , Gödöllő, Hungary
                [8 ]Department of Internal Medicine, Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School , Jerusalem, Israel
                [9 ]Department of Pneumology, Institute of Pneumatology “Marius Nasta” , Bucharest, Romania
                [10 ]Department Of Pneumology, Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy , Bucharest, Romania
                [11 ]Department of Pulmonology, Pirogov Russian National Research Medical University, Pletnev Hospital , Moscow, Russian Federation
                [12 ]Department of Functional Diagnostics, Specialized Hospital of Saint Zoerardus, Teaching Facility of the Slovak Medical University , Nitra, Slovakia
                [13 ]Topolšica Hospital , Topolšica, Slovenia
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Arschang Valipour Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Karl-Landsteiner-Institute for Lung Research and Pulmonary Oncology , Krankenhaus Nord-Klinik, Floridsdorf Brünnerstrasse 68, Wien, Vienna1210, AustriaTel +43 1 910 600 Email
                © 2019 Valipour et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms (

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 4, References: 68, Pages: 12
                Clinical Trial Report


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