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      Blood Eosinophil and Risk of Exacerbation in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Patients: A Retrospective Cohort Analysis

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          Abstract

          Purpose

          Blood eosinophil is a readily available biomarker to reflect the eosinophilic inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients, yet its association with exacerbation is inconclusive. It is uncertain which measurement, eosinophil percentage or absolute eosinophil count, should be used and what is the optimal cutoff for exacerbation prediction.

          Patients and Methods

          A total of 247 COPD patients were included in this retrospective cohort study. Blood eosinophil during stable disease state, baseline demographics, and clinical characteristics in 12 months after the index complete blood count (CBC) were recorded. Exacerbation frequencies were compared between patients with high and low blood eosinophil percentage using 2% as cut-off. Logistic regression and receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analyses were conducted.

          Results

          Patients with blood eosinophil ≥2% were associated with more frequent exacerbations than patients with eosinophil <2% in the 12 months after the index CBC (mean exacerbation 1.07 vs 0.34, p < 0.001). Higher blood eosinophil percentage conferred a higher risk of exacerbation. Adjusted odds ratio for exacerbation in 12 months after the index CBC for blood eosinophil ≥2% was 2.98 (95% confidence interval = 1.42–6.25). The area under the ROC curve of eosinophil percentage was significantly higher than that of absolute eosinophil count (0.678 vs 0.640, p = 0.010). The optimal cutoff of blood eosinophil percentage for exacerbation prediction was 2.8%.

          Conclusion

          Blood eosinophilia was associated with higher exacerbation risk in COPD patients. Further studies are required to elucidate the mechanism of eosinophilic inflammation in COPD and determine the optimal treatment strategy to reduce exacerbations.

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          Most cited references 30

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          Index for rating diagnostic tests

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            Blood Eosinophils and Exacerbations in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. The Copenhagen General Population Study.

            Whether high blood eosinophils are associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations among individuals with COPD in the general population is largely unknown.
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              Eosinophilic airway inflammation in COPD

              Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a common condition and a major cause of mortality. COPD is characterized by irreversible airflow obstruction. The physiological abnormalities observed in COPD are due to a combination of emphysema and obliteration of the small airways in association with airway inflammation. The predominant cells involved in this inflammatory response are CD8+ lymphocytes, neutrophils, and macrophages. Although eosinophilic airway inflammation is usually considered a feature of asthma, it has been demonstrated in large and small airway tissue samples and in 20%–40% of induced sputum samples from patients with stable COPD. This airway eosinophilia is increased in exacerbations. Thus, modifying eosinophilic inflammation may be a potential therapeutic target in COPD. Eosinophilic airway inflammation is resistant to inhaled corticosteroid therapy, but does respond to systemic corticosteroid therapy, and the degree of response is related to the intensity of the eosinophilic inflammation. In COPD, targeting treatment to normalize the sputum eosinophilia reduced the number of hospital admissions. Whether controlling eosinophilic inflammation in COPD patients with an airway eosinophilia will modify disease progression and possibly alter mortality is unknown, but warrants further investigation.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                copd
                copd
                International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
                Dove
                1176-9106
                1178-2005
                10 November 2020
                2020
                : 15
                : 2869-2877
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Medicine and Geriatrics, Princess Margaret Hospital , Hong Kong, China
                [2 ]Clinical Research Centre, Princess Margaret Hospital , Hong Kong, China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Ming Chiu Chan Department of Medicine and Geriatrics, Princess Margaret Hospital , Hong Kong, ChinaTel +852 2990 3771 Email cmc163@ha.org.hk
                Article
                268018
                10.2147/COPD.S268018
                7667703
                33204083
                © 2020 Chan et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 13, References: 30, Pages: 9
                Categories
                Original Research

                Respiratory medicine

                receiver operating characteristics curve, exacerbation, eosinophil, copd

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