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      Applications and Advances in Electronic-Nose Technologies

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          Abstract

          Electronic-nose devices have received considerable attention in the field of sensor technology during the past twenty years, largely due to the discovery of numerous applications derived from research in diverse fields of applied sciences. Recent applications of electronic nose technologies have come through advances in sensor design, material improvements, software innovations and progress in microcircuitry design and systems integration. The invention of many new e-nose sensor types and arrays, based on different detection principles and mechanisms, is closely correlated with the expansion of new applications. Electronic noses have provided a plethora of benefits to a variety of commercial industries, including the agricultural, biomedical, cosmetics, environmental, food, manufacturing, military, pharmaceutical, regulatory, and various scientific research fields. Advances have improved product attributes, uniformity, and consistency as a result of increases in quality control capabilities afforded by electronic-nose monitoring of all phases of industrial manufacturing processes. This paper is a review of the major electronic-nose technologies, developed since this specialized field was born and became prominent in the mid 1980s, and a summarization of some of the more important and useful applications that have been of greatest benefit to man.

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          Most cited references 236

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          FACS-optimized mutants of the green fluorescent protein (GFP).

          We have constructed a library in Escherichia coli of mutant gfp genes (encoding green fluorescent protein, GFP) expressed from a tightly regulated inducible promoter. We introduced random amino acid (aa) substitutions in the twenty aa flanking the chromophore Ser-Tyr-Gly sequence at aa 65-67. We then used fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) to select variants of GFP that fluoresce between 20-and 35-fold more intensely than wild type (wt), when excited at 488 nm. Sequence analysis reveals three classes of aa substitutions in GFP. All three classes of mutant proteins have highly shifted excitation maxima. In addition, when produced in E. coli, the folding of the mutant proteins is more efficient than folding of wt GFP. These two properties contribute to a greatly increased (100-fold) fluorescence intensity, making the mutants useful for a number of applications.
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            Electronic nose: current status and future trends.

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              Analysis of discrimination mechanisms in the mammalian olfactory system using a model nose.

              Olfaction exhibits both high sensitivity for odours and high discrimination between them. We suggest that to make fine discriminations between complex odorant mixtures containing varying ratios of odorants without the necessity for highly specialized peripheral receptors, the olfactory systems makes use of feature detection using broadly tuned receptor cells organized in a convergent neurone pathway. As a test of this hypothesis we have constructed an electronic nose using semiconductor transducers and incorporating design features suggested by our proposal. We report here that this device can reproducibly discriminate between a wide variety of odours, and its properties show that discrimination in an olfactory system could be achieved without the use of highly specific receptors.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Sensors (Basel)
                Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)
                Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI)
                1424-8220
                2009
                29 June 2009
                : 9
                : 7
                : 5099-5148
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Southern Hardwoods Laboratory, Center for Bottomland Hardwoods Research, Southern Research Station, USDA Forest Service, P.O. Box 227, Stoneville, Mississippi, 38776, USA
                [2 ] Department of Crop Science, University of Milan,Via Celoria 2, 20133, Milan, Italy; E-Mail: manuela.baietto@ 123456unimi.it
                Author notes
                [* ]Author to whom correspondence should be addressed; E-Mail: dwilson02@ 123456fs.fed.us ; Tel.: +1-662686-3180; Fax: +1-662-686-3195
                Article
                sensors-09-05099
                10.3390/s90705099
                3274163
                22346690
                fe98c159-61bd-46cd-adfd-18ce1a35c6a2
                © 2009 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland

                This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/).

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