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      Understanding Urban Green Space as a Health Resource: A Qualitative Comparison of Visit Motivation and Derived Effects among Park Users in Sheffield, UK


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          With increasing interest in the use of urban green space to promote human health, there is a need to understand the extent to which park users conceptualize these places as a resource for health and well-being. This study sought to examine park users’ own reasons for and benefits from green space usage and compare these with concepts and constructs in existing person-environment-health theories and models of health. Conducted in 13 public green spaces in Sheffield, UK, we undertook a qualitative content analysis of 312 park users’ responses to open-ended interview questions and identified a breadth, depth and salience of visit motivators and derived effects. Findings highlight a discrepancy between reasons for visiting and derived effects from the use of urban green space. Motivations emphasized walking, green space qualities, and children. Derived effects highlighted relaxation, positive emotions within the self and towards the place, and spiritual well-being. We generate a taxonomy of motivations and derived effects that could facilitate operationalization within empirical research and articulate a conceptual framework linking motivators to outcomes for investigating green space as a resource for human health and well-being.

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          The qualitative content analysis process.

          This paper is a description of inductive and deductive content analysis. Content analysis is a method that may be used with either qualitative or quantitative data and in an inductive or deductive way. Qualitative content analysis is commonly used in nursing studies but little has been published on the analysis process and many research books generally only provide a short description of this method. When using content analysis, the aim was to build a model to describe the phenomenon in a conceptual form. Both inductive and deductive analysis processes are represented as three main phases: preparation, organizing and reporting. The preparation phase is similar in both approaches. The concepts are derived from the data in inductive content analysis. Deductive content analysis is used when the structure of analysis is operationalized on the basis of previous knowledge. Inductive content analysis is used in cases where there are no previous studies dealing with the phenomenon or when it is fragmented. A deductive approach is useful if the general aim was to test a previous theory in a different situation or to compare categories at different time periods.
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            The need for a new medical model: a challenge for biomedicine.

            The dominant model of disease today is biomedical, and it leaves no room within tis framework for the social, psychological, and behavioral dimensions of illness. A biopsychosocial model is proposed that provides a blueprint for research, a framework for teaching, and a design for action in the real world of health care.
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              The restorative benefits of nature: Toward an integrative framework


                Author and article information

                Int J Environ Res Public Health
                Int J Environ Res Public Health
                International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
                22 January 2013
                January 2013
                : 10
                : 1
                : 417-442
                [1 ]Institute of Energy and Sustainable Development, De Montfort University, Queens Building, The Gateway, Leicester, LE1 9BH, UK
                [2 ]University of Michigan Integrative Medicine Program, Department of Family Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48104, USA; E-Mail: swarber@ 123456umich.edu
                [3 ]Geography Department, College of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Exeter, EX4 4RJ, UK; E-Mail: P.G.Devine-Wright@ 123456exeter.ac.uk
                [4 ]Environment and Sustainability Institute, University of Exeter, Penryn, Cornwall TR10 9EZ, UK; E-Mail: k.v.frankland@ 123456exeter.ac.uk
                Author notes
                [* ] Author to whom correspondence should be addressed; E-Mail: kirvine@ 123456dmu.ac.uk or kirvine@ 123456umich.edu ; Tel.: +44-(0)-116-207-8711; Fax: +44-(0)-116-257-7977.
                © 2013 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

                This article is an open-access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/).


                Public health
                environment,green space,health,motivation,physical activity,place,relaxation,restoration,stress.,well-being


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