+1 Recommend
1 collections
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found

      Carbamylated Hemoglobin as a Therapeutic Marker in Hemodialysis

      Read this article at

          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.


          Carbamylation requires isocyanic acid derived from urea. Carbamylation of hemoglobin (Hb) produces carbamylated Hb (carbHb), which could serve as a marker of posttranslational protein modification possibly associated with such uremic complications as atherosclerosis. Since relative carbHb levels are determined by mean urea concentration and duration of exposure, they could be used to assess the adequacy of a patient’s hemodialysis (HD) regimen. We therefore determined the relationship between carbHb and urea kinetics in patients with chronic renal failure (CRF) undergoing maintenance HD. In pre-HD determinations as well as in nondialyzed subjects including healthy subjects and CRF patients without dialysis, carbHb correlated well with blood urea nitrogen (BUN) concentrations, especially with BUN averaged for the preceding 1–3 months. In HD patients, carbHb correlated significantly with urea kinetics (time-averaged concentration of urea, or TAC<sub>urea</sub>, K<sub>t</sub>/V and urea reduction rate). The estimated mean urea concentration in HD patients calculated from the relationship between carbHb and averaged BUN over 3 months in the nondialyzed groups was lower than TAC<sub>urea</sub>, suggesting that TAC<sub>urea</sub> may be an overestimate. Pre-HD BUN is not a good nutritional index since detrimental decreases in urea elimination from the body can elevate pre-HD BUN independently of nutrition. We therefore devised a new nutritional index, BUN/carbHb, which correlated significantly with serum albumin as well as the normalized protein catabolic rate. These results demonstrate that carbHb accurately reflects uremic control and the BUN/carbHb ratio could serve as an index of nutritional state in HD patients.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 1

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: not found
          • Article: not found

          The effect of cyanate on the stability of proteins


            Author and article information

            S. Karger AG
            June 2002
            03 June 2002
            : 91
            : 2
            : 228-234
            Department of Kidney and Dialysis, Hyogo College of Medicine, Hyogo, Japan
            58397 Nephron 2002;91:228–234
            © 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

            Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

            Page count
            Figures: 4, Tables: 3, References: 29, Pages: 7
            Self URI (application/pdf):
            Original Paper


            Comment on this article