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      Ru-Doping in TiO2 electron transport layers of planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells for enhanced performance

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          Abstract

          Ru-Doping in TiO 2 electron transport layers of planar perovskite solar cells improved the power conversion efficiency from 13.42% to 15.70%.

          Abstract

          TiO 2 is widely used as an electron transport layer (ETL) material for perovskite solar cells, and various methods have been used to engineer the properties of TiO 2 ETLs for further improving the performance of perovskite solar cells. In this study, compact Ru-doped TiO 2 films, prepared via a one-step spray pyrolysis method, have been employed as ETLs for planar perovskite solar cells. Compared to the pristine TiO 2 film, the doped counterpart exhibits remarkably improved conductivity, as revealed by the conducting atomic force microscopy measurement. Consequently, the optimized device containing a 1% Ru-doped TiO 2 ETL presents a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of up to 15.7% (with an average value of 14.74%), which is 17% higher than that of the device using the pristine TiO 2 layer (13.42%, with an average value of 12.20%). The mechanism behind the enhancement in photovoltaic parameters has been investigated intensively via physicochemical characterization. A slight upshift of the conduction band minimum (CBM) is observed in the case of Ru-doped TiO 2 films. More importantly, fast injection of the photo-generated electrons from a perovskite layer into an ETL is also found when Ru-doped TiO 2 is applied as the ETL. Meanwhile, impedance spectroscopy suggests that the application of Ru-doped TiO 2 films leads to an increase in recombination resistance and a decrease in selective contact resistance. The enhancement in PCE is attributed to the improved charge injection and transport properties of the Ru-doped TiO 2 film, as well as its better band matching with the perovskite layer. These results demonstrate that doping TiO 2 ETLs with Ru is an efficient approach to improve the photovoltaic performance of perovskite solar cells. The presented work will provide a potential approach for developing materials with high-quality electron transport layers for efficient perovskite-based photovoltaic devices.

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          Most cited references 28

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          Anomalous Hysteresis in Perovskite Solar Cells.

          Perovskite solar cells have rapidly risen to the forefront of emerging photovoltaic technologies, exhibiting rapidly rising efficiencies. This is likely to continue to rise, but in the development of these solar cells there are unusual characteristics that have arisen, specifically an anomalous hysteresis in the current-voltage curves. We identify this phenomenon and show some examples of factors that make the hysteresis more or less extreme. We also demonstrate stabilized power output under working conditions and suggest that this is a useful parameter to present, alongside the current-voltage scan derived power conversion efficiency. We hypothesize three possible origins of the effect and discuss its implications on device efficiency and future research directions. Understanding and resolving the hysteresis is essential for further progress and is likely to lead to a further step improvement in performance.
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            Efficient and stable large-area perovskite solar cells with inorganic charge extraction layers.

             W Chen,  Y. Wu,  Y. Yue (2015)
            The recent dramatic rise in power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) has triggered intense research worldwide. However, high PCE values have often been reached with poor stability at an illuminated area of typically less than 0.1 square centimeter. We used heavily doped inorganic charge extraction layers in planar PSCs to achieve very rapid carrier extraction, even with 10- to 20-nanometer-thick layers, avoiding pinholes and eliminating local structural defects over large areas. The robust inorganic nature of the layers allowed for the fabrication of PSCs with an aperture area >1 square centimeter that have a PCE >15%, as certified by an accredited photovoltaic calibration laboratory. Hysteresis in the current-voltage characteristics was eliminated; the PSCs were stable, with >90% of the initial PCE remaining after 1000 hours of light soaking.
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              A vacuum flash-assisted solution process for high-efficiency large-area perovskite solar cells.

              Metal halide perovskite solar cells (PSCs) currently attract enormous research interest because of their high solar-to-electric power conversion efficiency (PCE) and low fabrication costs, but their practical development is hampered by difficulties in achieving high performance with large-size devices. We devised a simple vacuum flash-assisted solution processing method to obtain shiny, smooth, crystalline perovskite films of high electronic quality over large areas. This enabled us to fabricate solar cells with an aperture area exceeding 1 square centimeter, a maximum efficiency of 20.5%, and a certified PCE of 19.6%. By contrast, the best certified PCE to date is 15.6% for PSCs of similar size. We demonstrate that the reproducibility of the method is excellent and that the cells show virtually no hysteresis. Our approach enables the realization of highly efficient large-area PSCs for practical deployment.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                JMCCCX
                Journal of Materials Chemistry C
                J. Mater. Chem. C
                Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC)
                2050-7526
                2050-7534
                2018
                2018
                : 6
                : 17
                : 4746-4752
                Affiliations
                [1 ]State Key Laboratory of Organic–Inorganic Composites
                [2 ]State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering
                [3 ]Beijing University of Chemical Technology
                [4 ]Beijing 100029
                [5 ]P. R. China
                [6 ]CAS Key Laboratory of Nanosystem and Hierarchical Fabrication
                [7 ]CAS Center for Excellence in Nanoscience
                [8 ]National Center for Nanoscience and Technology
                [9 ]Beijing 100190
                Article
                10.1039/C7TC05252A
                fea8b5c3-ec41-4ec6-be2f-6c722f810f3d
                © 2018
                Product
                Self URI (article page): http://xlink.rsc.org/?DOI=C7TC05252A

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