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      Brain–computer communication: Unlocking the locked in.

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          Abstract

          With the increasing efficiency of life-support systems and better intensive care, more patients survive severe injuries of the brain and spinal cord. Many of these patients experience locked-in syndrome: The active mind is locked in a paralyzed body. Consequently, communication is extremely restricted or impossible. A muscle-independent communication channel overcomes this problem and is realized through a brain-computer interface, a direct connection between brain and computer. The number of technically elaborated brain-computer interfaces is in contrast with the number of systems used in the daily life of locked-in patients. It is hypothesized that a profound knowledge and consideration of psychological principles are necessary to make brain-computer interfaces feasible for locked-in patients.

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          A meta-analytic review of experiments examining the effects of extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation.

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            Is the P300 component a manifestation of context updating?

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              Oscillatory gamma activity in humans and its role in object representation.

              We experience objects as whole, complete entities irrespective of whether they are perceived by our sensory systems or are recalled from memory. However, it is also known that many of the properties of objects are encoded and processed in different areas of the brain. How then, do coherent representations emerge? One theory suggests that rhythmic synchronization of neural discharges in the gamma band (around 40 Hz) may provide the necessary spatial and temporal links that bind together the processing in different brain areas to build a coherent percept. In this article we propose that this mechanism could also be used more generally for the construction of object representations that are driven by sensory input or internal, top-down processes. The review will focus on the literature on gamma oscillatory activities in humans and will describe the different types of gamma responses and how to analyze them. Converging evidence that suggests that one particular type of gamma activity (induced gamma activity) is observed during the construction of an object representation will be discussed.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Psychological Bulletin
                Psychological Bulletin
                American Psychological Association (APA)
                1939-1455
                0033-2909
                2001
                2001
                : 127
                : 3
                : 358-375
                Article
                10.1037/0033-2909.127.3.358
                11393301
                © 2001

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