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      Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Encephalitozoon cuniculi among domestic rabbits in central China Translated title: Séroprévalence de Toxoplasma gondii et d’ Encephalitozoon cuniculi chez les lapins domestiques en Chine centrale

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          Rabbits ( Oryctolagus cuniculus) are frequently reared for meat production in China. The aim of this study was to assess the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Encephalitozoon cuniculi, and risk factors of infection in domestic rabbits raised in Henan province, central China. 1,213 serum samples of domestic rabbits were collected and tested for anti- T. gondii and anti- E. cuniculi antibodies using a modified agglutination test (MAT) and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. The serum positive rates of T. gondii and E. cuniculi were 128/1,213 (10.55%) and 235/1,213 (19.37%), respectively. Co-infection of T. gondii and E. cuniculi was demonstrated in 84 specimens; 44 rabbits were seropositive for T. gondii alone, while 151 rabbits were seropositive for E. cuniculi alone. The main risk factors simultaneously associated with T. gondii and E. cuniculi infection were the age of the rabbit, the type of food, and the rabbit rearing system. Serum positive rates of T. gondii and E. cuniculi among domestic rabbits were high, indicating the possibility of public health issues.

          Translated abstract

          Les lapins ( Oryctolagus cuniculus) sont fréquemment élevés pour la production de viande en Chine. Le but de l’étude était de déterminer la séroprévalence de Toxoplasma gondii et d’ Encephalitozoon cuniculi ainsi que les facteurs de risque d’infection chez les lapins domestiques élevés dans la province du Henan, en Chine centrale. 1 213 échantillons de sérum de lapins domestiques ont été collectés et testés pour les anticorps anti- T. gondii et anti- E. cuniculi en utilisant un test d’agglutination modifié (MAT) et un dosage immuno-enzymatique (ELISA), respectivement. Les taux sériques positifs de T. gondii et E. cuniculi étaient de 128/1 213 (10,55%) et de 235/1 213 (19,37%), respectivement. La co-infection par T. gondii et E. cuniculi a été démontrée chez 84 spécimens ; 44 lapins étaient séropositifs pour T. gondii seul, alors que 151 lapins étaient séropositifs pour E. cuniculi seul. Les principaux facteurs de risque associés simultanément à l’infection par T. gondii et E. cuniculi étaient l’âge du lapin, le type d’aliment et le système d’élevage du lapin. Les taux sériques positifs de T. gondii et d’E . cuniculi chez les lapins domestiques étaient élevés, ce qui indique la possibilité de problèmes de santé publique.

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          Most cited references 19

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          Toxoplasma gondii infection and liver disease: a case-control study in a Northern Mexican population

          Background Infection with the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii may cause liver disease. However, the impact of the infection in patients suffering from liver disease is unknown. Therefore, through a case-control study design, 75 adult liver disease patients attending a public hospital in Durango City, Mexico, and 150 controls from the general population of the same region matched by gender, age, and residence were examined with enzyme-linked immunoassays for the presence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG and anti-Toxoplasma IgM antibodies. Socio-demographic, clinical and behavioral characteristics from the study subjects were obtained. Results Seroprevalence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies and IgG titers did not differ significantly in patients (10/75; 13.3%) and controls (16/150; 10.7%). Two (2.7%) patients and 5 (3.3%) controls had anti-Toxoplasma IgM antibodies (P = 0.57). Seropositivity to Toxoplasma did not show any association with the diagnosis of liver disease. In contrast, seropositivity to Toxoplasma in patients was associated with consumption of venison and quail meat. Toxoplasma seropositivity was more frequent in patients with reflex impairment (27.8%) than in patients without this impairment (8.8%) (P = 0.05). Multivariate analysis showed that Toxoplasma seropositivity in patients was associated with consumption of sheep meat (OR = 8.69; 95% CI: 1.02-73.71; P = 0.04) and rabbit meat (OR = 4.61; 95% CI: 1.06-19.98; P = 0.04). Conclusions Seropositivity to Toxoplasma was comparable among liver disease patients and controls. Further studies with larger sample sizes are needed to elucidate the association of Toxoplasma with liver disease. Consumption of venison, and rabbit, sheep, and quail meats may warrant further investigation.
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            Isolation and genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii from domestic rabbits in China to reveal the prevalence of type III strains.

            In this study, Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in 77 free domestic rabbits from a rural area surrounding Shanghai, China were analyzed via ELISA, which identified 18 seropositive rabbits. One strain of T. gondii (designated SHR) was successfully isolated from one seropositive rabbit using a mouse bioassay. The isolated T. gondii killed all BALB/c mice inoculated with 10(4) tachyzoites, indicating its virulence in mice. Mn-PCR-RFLP analysis was used to type parasites recovered from cell cultures. Further analysis based on sequencing of a polymorphic intron revealed that the isolated strain contained a clonal type III genome, a rare finding in any host in China. This is the first reported isolation of T. gondii genotype III from rabbits in China. Our results suggested that type III strains are circulating in rabbits in China, which act as potential reservoirs of T. gondii transmission. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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              High prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii oocyst shedding in stray and pet cats (Felis catus) in Virginia, United States

              Background The protozoan Toxoplasma gondii is the causative agent of toxoplasmosis, with complications varying from mental disease to death. While human infection can occur via ingestion of tissue cysts from infected meat, most human infection comes from oocysts. Cats are the only definitive host, and thus shedding of oocysts by cats provides the ultimate source of toxoplasmosis. Methods While most studies in the area use seroprevalence to monitor Toxoplasma incidence in cat populations, this provides only a history of infection. This study used PCR detection of oocysts from cat feces to more accurately estimate the numbers of cats producing oocysts and thus posing an active health risk. DNA sequencing was use to confirm the identity of the PCR products. Results Of the 49 cats tested, 9 yielded PCR products of the expected size. Six of the nine were determined by sequence analysis to be false positives, while three products were true positives. Overall, 6% of cats examined were found to be actively shedding oocysts. Conclusions The incidence of oocyst shedding in the cat population studied was significantly higher than expected and higher than found in most cat populations world-wide. Of equal importance, the primers tested were shown to produce PCR products of multiple sizes and non-target products of expected size. We detected false positives at a higher rate than true positives, emphasizing the need for confirmatory analysis. Further research may produce better protocols for Toxoplasma detection from cat fecal samples.

                Author and article information

                EDP Sciences
                9 March 2018
                : 25
                : ( publisher-idID: parasite/2018/01 )
                [1 ] School of Basic Medical Sciences, Xinxiang Medical University, Xinxiang, Henan, 453003 PR China
                [2 ] Henan Muxiang Veterinary Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd, Zhengzhou, Henan, 450000 PR China
                [3 ] School of Life Science and Technology, Xinxiang University, Xinxiang, Henan, 453003 PR China
                [4 ] School of Stomatology, Xinxiang Medical University, Xinxiang, Henan, 453003 PR China
                Author notes
                parasite170157 10.1051/parasite/2018010
                © S. Wang et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2018

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 3, Equations: 0, References: 22, Pages: 7
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