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      Once-monthly galcanezumab for the prevention of migraine in adults: an evidence-based descriptive review and potential place in therapy

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          In the last 15 years relevant efforts have been made to demonstrate that calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) antagonism is a valuable and druggable mechanism for treatment or prevention of migraine. Galcanezumab is one of the antibodies developed and studied to prevent migraine by targeting CGRP. The scope of this review is to report data currently available on galcanezumab. According to available data, galcanezumab is safe and efficacious in preventing migraine in episodic migraine patients, also reducing disability and functional impairment due to the disorder. In September 2018, galcanezumab was approved in the USA for the prevention of migraine in adults. The placement of galcanezumab into the current therapeutic scenario will be a revolution for migraine patients, and probably in a less near future also for patients affected by other primary headaches.

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          Most cited references 69

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          The global burden of headache: a documentation of headache prevalence and disability worldwide.

          This study, which is a part of the initiative 'Lifting The Burden: The Global Campaign to Reduce the Burden of Headache Worldwide', assesses and presents all existing evidence of the world prevalence and burden of headache disorders. Population-based studies applying International Headache Society criteria for migraine and tension-type headache, and also studies on headache in general and 'chronic daily headache', have been included. Globally, the percentages of the adult population with an active headache disorder are 46% for headache in general, 11% for migraine, 42% for tension-type headache and 3% for chronic daily headache. Our calculations indicate that the disability attributable to tension-type headache is larger worldwide than that due to migraine. On the World Health Organization's ranking of causes of disability, this would bring headache disorders into the 10 most disabling conditions for the two genders, and into the five most disabling for women.
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            The cost of headache disorders in Europe: the Eurolight project.

            Headache disorders are very common, but their monetary costs in Europe are unknown. We performed the first comprehensive estimation of how economic resources are lost to headache in Europe.   From November 2008 to August 2009, a cross-sectional survey was conducted in eight countries representing 55% of the adult EU population. Participation rates varied between 11% and 59%. In total, 8412 questionnaires contributed to this analysis. Using bottom-up methodology, we estimated direct (medications, outpatient health care, hospitalization and investigations) and indirect (work absenteeism and reduced productivity at work) annual per-person costs. Prevalence data, simultaneously collected and, for migraine, also derived from a systematic review, were used to impute national costs.   Mean per-person annual costs were €1222 for migraine (95% CI 1055-1389; indirect costs 93%), €303 for tension-type headache (TTH, 95% CI 230-376; indirect costs 92%), €3561 for medication-overuse headache (MOH, 95% CI 2487-4635; indirect costs 92%), and €253 for other headaches (95% CI 99-407; indirect costs 82%). In the EU, the total annual cost of headache amongst adults aged 18-65 years was calculated, according to our prevalence estimates, at €173 billion, apportioned to migraine (€111 billion; 64%), TTH (€21 billion; 12%), MOH (€37 billion; 21%) and other headaches (€3 billion; 2%). Using the 15% systematic review prevalence of migraine, calculated costs were somewhat lower (migraine €50 billion, all headache €112 billion annually).   Headache disorders are prominent health-related drivers of immense economic losses for the EU. This has immediate implications for healthcare policy. Health care for headache can be both improved and cost saving. © 2011 The Author(s). European Journal of Neurology © 2011 EFNS.
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              Pathophysiology of migraine.

              Migraine is a collection of perplexing neurological conditions in which the brain and its associated tissues have been implicated as major players during an attack. Once considered exclusively a disorder of blood vessels, compelling evidence has led to the realization that migraine represents a highly choreographed interaction between major inputs from both the peripheral and central nervous systems, with the trigeminovascular system and the cerebral cortex among the main players. Advances in in vivo and in vitro technologies have informed us about the significance to migraine of events such as cortical spreading depression and activation of the trigeminovascular system and its constituent neuropeptides, as well as about the importance of neuronal and glial ion channels and transporters that contribute to the putative cortical excitatory/inhibitory imbalance that renders migraineurs susceptible to an attack. This review focuses on emerging concepts that drive the science of migraine in both a mechanistic direction and a therapeutic direction.

                Author and article information

                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Dove Medical Press
                11 April 2019
                : 15
                : 557-569
                [1 ]Headache Centre, Careggi University Hospital, Department of Health Sciences, University of Florence, Florence, Italy, silvia.benemei@ 123456unifi.it
                [2 ]Medical Toxicology Unit, Headache and Drug Abuse Centre, Department of Biomedical, Metabolic and Neural Sciences, University of Modena e Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy
                [3 ]Department of Clinical and Molecular Medicine, Regional Referral Headache Centre, Sant’Andrea Hospital, Sapienza University, Rome
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Silvia Benemei, Headache Center, Careggi University Hospital, Department of Health Sciences, University of Florence, Viale Pieraccini 18, 50139 Florence, Italy, Tel +39 055 275 8131, Fax +39 055 275 1093, Email silvia.benemei@ 123456unifi.it
                © 2019 Lupi et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.



                cgrp, monoclonal antibody prophylaxis, ly2951742, headache, calcitonin gene-related peptide


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