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      Chronic kidney disease and valvular heart disease: conclusions from a Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) Controversies Conference

      , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,
      Kidney International
      Elsevier BV

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          Abstract

          <p class="first" id="d3357849e298">Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major risk factor for valvular heart disease (VHD). Mitral annular and aortic valve calcifications are highly prevalent in CKD patients and commonly lead to valvular stenosis and regurgitation, as well as complications including conduction system abnormalities and endocarditis. VHD, especially mitral regurgitation and aortic stenosis, is associated with significantly reduced survival among CKD patients. Knowledge related to VHD in the general population is not always applicable to CKD patients because the pathophysiology may be different, and CKD patients have a high prevalence of comorbid conditions and elevated risk for periprocedural complications and mortality. This Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) review of CKD and VHD seeks to improve understanding of the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of VHD in CKD by summarizing knowledge gaps, areas of controversy, and priorities for research. </p>

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          Intensive lipid lowering with simvastatin and ezetimibe in aortic stenosis.

          Hyperlipidemia has been suggested as a risk factor for stenosis of the aortic valve, but lipid-lowering studies have had conflicting results. We conducted a randomized, double-blind trial involving 1873 patients with mild-to-moderate, asymptomatic aortic stenosis. The patients received either 40 mg of simvastatin plus 10 mg of ezetimibe or placebo daily. The primary outcome was a composite of major cardiovascular events, including death from cardiovascular causes, aortic-valve replacement, nonfatal myocardial infarction, hospitalization for unstable angina pectoris, heart failure, coronary-artery bypass grafting, percutaneous coronary intervention, and nonhemorrhagic stroke. Secondary outcomes were events related to aortic-valve stenosis and ischemic cardiovascular events. During a median follow-up of 52.2 months, the primary outcome occurred in 333 patients (35.3%) in the simvastatin-ezetimibe group and in 355 patients (38.2%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio in the simvastatin-ezetimibe group, 0.96; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.83 to 1.12; P=0.59). Aortic-valve replacement was performed in 267 patients (28.3%) in the simvastatin-ezetimibe group and in 278 patients (29.9%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.84 to 1.18; P=0.97). Fewer patients had ischemic cardiovascular events in the simvastatin-ezetimibe group (148 patients) than in the placebo group (187 patients) (hazard ratio, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.63 to 0.97; P=0.02), mainly because of the smaller number of patients who underwent coronary-artery bypass grafting. Cancer occurred more frequently in the simvastatin-ezetimibe group (105 vs. 70, P=0.01). Simvastatin and ezetimibe did not reduce the composite outcome of combined aortic-valve events and ischemic events in patients with aortic stenosis. Such therapy reduced the incidence of ischemic cardiovascular events but not events related to aortic-valve stenosis. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00092677.) 2008 Massachusetts Medical Society
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            2014 AHA/ACC Guideline for the Management of Patients With Valvular Heart Disease: executive summary: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines.

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              A randomized trial of intensive lipid-lowering therapy in calcific aortic stenosis.

              Calcific aortic stenosis has many characteristics in common with atherosclerosis, including hypercholesterolemia. We hypothesized that intensive lipid-lowering therapy would halt the progression of calcific aortic stenosis or induce its regression. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, patients with calcific aortic stenosis were randomly assigned to receive either 80 mg of atorvastatin daily or a matched placebo. Aortic-valve stenosis and calcification were assessed with the use of Doppler echocardiography and helical computed tomography, respectively. The primary end points were change in aortic-jet velocity and aortic-valve calcium score. Seventy-seven patients were assigned to atorvastatin and 78 to placebo, with a median follow-up of 25 months (range, 7 to 36). Serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations remained at 130+/-30 mg per deciliter in the placebo group and fell to 63+/-23 mg per deciliter in the atorvastatin group (P<0.001). Increases in aortic-jet velocity were 0.199+/-0.210 m per second per year in the atorvastatin group and 0.203+/-0.208 m per second per year in the placebo group (P=0.95; adjusted mean difference, 0.002; 95 percent confidence interval, -0.066 to 0.070 m per second per year). Progression in valvular calcification was 22.3+/-21.0 percent per year in the atorvastatin group, and 21.7+/-19.8 percent per year in the placebo group (P=0.93; ratio of post-treatment aortic-valve calcium score, 0.998; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.947 to 1.050). Intensive lipid-lowering therapy does not halt the progression of calcific aortic stenosis or induce its regression. This study cannot exclude a small reduction in the rate of disease progression or a significant reduction in major clinical end points. Long-term, large-scale, randomized, controlled trials are needed to establish the role of statin therapy in patients with calcific aortic stenosis. Copyright 2005 Massachusetts Medical Society.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                (View ORCID Profile)
                Journal
                Kidney International
                Kidney International
                Elsevier BV
                00852538
                October 2019
                October 2019
                : 96
                : 4
                : 836-849
                Article
                10.1016/j.kint.2019.06.025
                31543156
                fecef9e4-58f1-4c51-986f-fa6061df5656
                © 2019

                https://www.elsevier.com/tdm/userlicense/1.0/

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/

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