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      Integrating circadian dynamics with physiological processes in plants

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      Nature Reviews Genetics

      Springer Science and Business Media LLC

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          Abstract

          The plant circadian clock coordinates the responses to multiple and often simultaneous environmental challenges that the sessile plant cannot avoid. These responses must be integrated efficiently into dynamic metabolic and physiological networks essential for growth and reproduction. Many of the output pathways regulated by the circadian clock feed back to modulate clock function, leading to the appreciation of the clock as a central hub in a sophisticated regulatory network. In this Review, we discuss the circadian regulation of growth, flowering time, abiotic and biotic stress responses, and metabolism, as well as why temporal 'gating' of these processes is important to plant fitness.

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          Most cited references 131

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          PLANT COLD ACCLIMATION: Freezing Tolerance Genes and Regulatory Mechanisms.

          Many plants increase in freezing tolerance upon exposure to low nonfreezing temperatures, a phenomenon known as cold acclimation. In this review, recent advances in determining the nature and function of genes with roles in freezing tolerance and the mechanisms involved in low temperature gene regulation and signal transduction are described. One of the important conclusions to emerge from these studies is that cold acclimation includes the expression of certain cold-induced genes that function to stabilize membranes against freeze-induced injury. In addition, a family of Arabidopsis transcription factors, the CBF/DREB1 proteins, have been identified that control the expression of a regulon of cold-induced genes that increase plant freezing tolerance. These results along with many of the others summarized here further our understanding of the basic mechanisms that plants have evolved to survive freezing temperatures. In addition, the findings have potential practical applications as freezing temperatures are a major factor limiting the geographical locations suitable for growing crop and horticultural plants and periodically account for significant losses in plant productivity.
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            Natural variation in Ghd7 is an important regulator of heading date and yield potential in rice.

            Yield potential, plant height and heading date are three classes of traits that determine the productivity of many crop plants. Here we show that the quantitative trait locus (QTL) Ghd7, isolated from an elite rice hybrid and encoding a CCT domain protein, has major effects on an array of traits in rice, including number of grains per panicle, plant height and heading date. Enhanced expression of Ghd7 under long-day conditions delays heading and increases plant height and panicle size. Natural mutants with reduced function enable rice to be cultivated in temperate and cooler regions. Thus, Ghd7 has played crucial roles for increasing productivity and adaptability of rice globally.
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              ROS as key players in plant stress signalling.

              Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an integral role as signalling molecules in the regulation of numerous biological processes such as growth, development, and responses to biotic and/or abiotic stimuli in plants. To some extent, various functions of ROS signalling are attributed to differences in the regulatory mechanisms of respiratory burst oxidase homologues (RBOHs) that are involved in a multitude of different signal transduction pathways activated in assorted tissue and cell types under fluctuating environmental conditions. Recent findings revealed that stress responses in plants are mediated by a temporal-spatial coordination between ROS and other signals that rely on production of stress-specific chemicals, compounds, and hormones. In this review we will provide an update of recent findings related to the integration of ROS signals with an array of signalling pathways aimed at regulating different responses in plants. In particular, we will address signals that confer systemic acquired resistance (SAR) or systemic acquired acclimation (SAA) in plants.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nature Reviews Genetics
                Nat Rev Genet
                Springer Science and Business Media LLC
                1471-0056
                1471-0064
                October 2015
                September 15 2015
                October 2015
                : 16
                : 10
                : 598-610
                Article
                10.1038/nrg3976
                26370901
                © 2015

                http://www.springer.com/tdm

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