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      Developmental Dynamics of the Larval Muscle System of Bay Scallop ( Argopecten irradians)

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          Though the larval development of bivalves has been extensively studied for commercial purposes, the dynamic development of larval muscle system remains largely unknown. In this study, we characterized the larval muscle system at different developmental stages (D-shaped veligers, umbo veligers and spats) in the bay scallop ( Argopecten irradians) by phalloidin staining and under a confocal microscopy. The functional muscles are initially established at the early stage of veligers, which have four pairs of velar retractors and one anterior adductor. At the veliger stage, the velum and posterior retractor muscles are functionally important for velar contractility but undergo an irreversible shrink until they disappear at the end of the larval stage. During metamorphosis, three crucial modifications take place in the larval muscle system. The metamorphosis process involves the gradual degeneration of velum retractors, mantle margin development from an unfolded to a three-fold state, and remodeling of the adductor muscle system from dimyarian (two adductors) to monomyarian condition (one adductor) as in juveniles/adults. All retractor muscles are composed of striated muscle, but both anterior and posterior adductors have smooth and striated components. These findings highlight that the morphological changes at different stages are typical features of myogenesis in scallops. The present knowledge on the developmental dynamics of myogenesis in the bay scallop will not only improve our understanding of phenotypic diversity of larval myoanatomy in bivalves, but also provide useful information on the larval culture in hatcheries.

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          Author and article information

          Journal of Ocean University of China
          Science Press and Springer (China )
          24 January 2020
          01 April 2020
          : 19
          : 2
          : 386-392
          1Key Laboratory of Sustainable Development of Marine Fisheries of Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Yellow Sea Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China
          2Function Laboratory for Marine Fisheries Science and Food Production Processes, Pilot National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao 266071, China
          Author notes
          *Corresponding author: YANG Aiguo, Tel: 0086-532-85811982, E-mail: yangag@
          Copyright © Ocean University of China, Science Press and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2020.

          The copyright to this article, including any graphic elements therein (e.g. illustrations, charts, moving images), is hereby assigned for good and valuable consideration to the editorial office of Journal of Ocean University of China, Science Press and Springer effective if and when the article is accepted for publication and to the extent assignable if assignability is restricted for by applicable law or regulations (e.g. for U.S. government or crown employees).

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