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      Plasma and cellular fibronectin: distinct and independent functions during tissue repair

      1 , , 1

      Fibrogenesis & Tissue Repair

      BioMed Central

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          Abstract

          Fibronectin (FN) is a ubiquitous extracellular matrix (ECM) glycoprotein that plays vital roles during tissue repair. The plasma form of FN circulates in the blood, and upon tissue injury, is incorporated into fibrin clots to exert effects on platelet function and to mediate hemostasis. Cellular FN is then synthesized and assembled by cells as they migrate into the clot to reconstitute damaged tissue. The assembly of FN into a complex three-dimensional matrix during physiological repair plays a key role not only as a structural scaffold, but also as a regulator of cell function during this stage of tissue repair. FN fibrillogenesis is a complex, stepwise process that is strictly regulated by a multitude of factors. During fibrosis, there is excessive deposition of ECM, of which FN is one of the major components. Aberrant FN-matrix assembly is a major contributing factor to the switch from normal tissue repair to misregulated fibrosis. Understanding the mechanisms involved in FN assembly and how these interplay with cellular, fibrotic and immune responses may reveal targets for the future development of therapies to regulate aberrant tissue-repair processes.

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          Most cited references 231

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          Basement membranes: structure, assembly and role in tumour angiogenesis.

           Raghu Kalluri (2003)
          In recent years, the basement membrane (BM)--a specialized form of extracellular matrix (ECM)--has been recognized as an important regulator of cell behaviour, rather than just a structural feature of tissues. The BM mediates tissue compartmentalization and sends signals to epithelial cells about the external microenvironment. The BM is also an important structural and functional component of blood vessels, constituting an extracellular microenvironment sensor for endothelial cells and pericytes. Vascular BM components have recently been found to be involved in the regulation of tumour angiogenesis, making them attractive candidate targets for potential cancer therapies.
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            Transmembrane crosstalk between the extracellular matrix--cytoskeleton crosstalk.

            Integrin-mediated cell adhesions provide dynamic, bidirectional links between the extracellular matrix and the cytoskeleton. Besides having central roles in cell migration and morphogenesis, focal adhesions and related structures convey information across the cell membrane, to regulate extracellular-matrix assembly, cell proliferation, differentiation, and death. This review describes integrin functions, mechanosensors, molecular switches and signal-transduction pathways activated and integrated by adhesion, with a unifying theme being the importance of local physical forces.
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              Angiogenesis in wound healing.

              During wound healing, angiogenic capillary sprouts invade the fibrin/fibronectin-rich wound clot and within a few days organize into a microvascular network throughout the granulation tissue. As collagen accumulates in the granulation tissue to produce scar, the density of blood vessels diminishes. A dynamic interaction occurs among endothelial cells, angiogenic cytokines, such as FGF, VEGF, TGF-beta, angiopoietin, and mast cell tryptase, and the extracellular matrix (ECM) environment. Specific endothelial cell ECM receptors are critical for these morphogenetic changes in blood vessels during wound repair. In particular, alpha(v)beta3, the integrin receptor for fibrin and fibronectin, appears to be required for wound angiogenesis: alpha(v)beta3 is expressed on the tips of angiogenic capillary sprouts invading the wound clot, and functional inhibitors of alpha(v)beta3 transiently inhibit granulation tissue formation. Recent investigations have shown that the wound ECM can regulate angiogenesis in part by modulating integrin receptor expression. mRNA levels of alpha(v)beta3 in human dermal microvascular endothelial cells either plated on fibronectin or overlaid by fibrin gel were higher than in cells plated on collagen or overlaid by collagen gel. Wound angiogenesis also appears to be regulated by endothelial cell interaction with the specific three-dimensional ECM environment in the wound space. In an in vitro model of human sprout angiogenesis, three-dimensional fibrin gel, simulating early wound clot, but not collagen gel, simulating late granulation tissue, supported capillary sprout formation. Understanding the molecular mechanisms that regulate wound angiogenesis, particularly how ECM modulates ECM receptor and angiogenic factor requirements, may provide new approaches for treating chronic wounds.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Fibrogenesis Tissue Repair
                Fibrogenesis & Tissue Repair
                BioMed Central
                1755-1536
                2011
                16 September 2011
                : 4
                : 21
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Matrix Biology, Kennedy Institute of Rheumatology Division, Nuffield Department of Orthopedic Rheumatology and Musculoskeletal Sciences, Oxford University, 65 Aspenlea Road, London, W6 8LH, UK
                Article
                1755-1536-4-21
                10.1186/1755-1536-4-21
                3182887
                21923916
                Copyright ©2011 To and Midwood; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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                Molecular biology

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