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      Nucleolar Stress: hallmarks, sensing mechanism and diseases

      1 , 2 , 1 , 1 , *

      Cell Stress

      Shared Science Publishers OG

      nucleolar stress, ribosome biogenesis, NPM1, translocation, p53, MDM2, ribosomal proteins

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          Abstract

          The nucleolus is a prominent subnuclear compartment, where ribosome biosynthesis takes place. Recently, the nucleolus has gained attention for its novel role in the regulation of cellular stress. Nucleolar stress is emerging as a new concept, which is characterized by diverse cellular insult-induced abnormalities in nucleolar structure and function, ultimately leading to activation of p53 or other stress signaling pathways and alterations in cell behavior. Despite a number of comprehensive reviews on this concept, straightforward and clear-cut way criteria for a nucleolar stress state, regarding the factors that elicit this state, the morphological and functional alterations as well as the rationale for p53 activation are still missing. Based on literature of the past two decades, we herein summarize the evolution of the concept and provide hallmarks of nucleolar stress. Along with updated information and thorough discussion of existing confusions in the field, we pay particular attention to the current understanding of the sensing mechanisms, i.e., how stress is integrated by p53. In addition, we propose our own emphasis regarding the role of nucleolar protein NPM1 in the hallmarks of nucleolar stress and sensing mechanisms. Finally, the links of nucleolar stress to human diseases are briefly and selectively introduced.

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          Most cited references 186

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          Genomic and epigenomic landscapes of adult de novo acute myeloid leukemia.

            (2013)
          Many mutations that contribute to the pathogenesis of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are undefined. The relationships between patterns of mutations and epigenetic phenotypes are not yet clear. We analyzed the genomes of 200 clinically annotated adult cases of de novo AML, using either whole-genome sequencing (50 cases) or whole-exome sequencing (150 cases), along with RNA and microRNA sequencing and DNA-methylation analysis. AML genomes have fewer mutations than most other adult cancers, with an average of only 13 mutations found in genes. Of these, an average of 5 are in genes that are recurrently mutated in AML. A total of 23 genes were significantly mutated, and another 237 were mutated in two or more samples. Nearly all samples had at least 1 nonsynonymous mutation in one of nine categories of genes that are almost certainly relevant for pathogenesis, including transcription-factor fusions (18% of cases), the gene encoding nucleophosmin (NPM1) (27%), tumor-suppressor genes (16%), DNA-methylation-related genes (44%), signaling genes (59%), chromatin-modifying genes (30%), myeloid transcription-factor genes (22%), cohesin-complex genes (13%), and spliceosome-complex genes (14%). Patterns of cooperation and mutual exclusivity suggested strong biologic relationships among several of the genes and categories. We identified at least one potential driver mutation in nearly all AML samples and found that a complex interplay of genetic events contributes to AML pathogenesis in individual patients. The databases from this study are widely available to serve as a foundation for further investigations of AML pathogenesis, classification, and risk stratification. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health.).
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            Mdm2 promotes the rapid degradation of p53.

             Y Haupt,  M Oren,  A Kazaz (1997)
            The p53 tumour-suppressor protein exerts antiproliferative effects, including growth arrest and apoptosis, in response to various types of stress. The activity of p53 is abrogated by mutations that occur frequently in tumours, as well as by several viral and cellular proteins. The Mdm2 oncoprotein is a potent inhibitor of p53. Mdm2 binds the transcriptional activation domain of p53 and blocks its ability to regulate target genes and to exert antiproliferative effects. On the other hand, p53 activates the expression of the mdm2 gene in an autoregulatory feedback loop. The interval between p53 activation and consequent Mdm2 accumulation defines a time window during which p53 exerts its effects. We now report that Mdm2 also promotes the rapid degradation of p53 under conditions in which p53 is otherwise stabilized. This effect of Mdm2 requires binding of p53; moreover, a small domain of p53, encompassing the Mdm2-binding site, confers Mdm2-dependent detstabilization upon heterologous proteins. Raised amounts of Mdm2 strongly repress mutant p53 accumulation in tumour-derived cells. During recovery from DNA damage, maximal Mdm2 induction coincides with rapid p53 loss. We propose that the Mdm2-promoted degradation of p53 provides a new mechanism to ensure effective termination of the p53 signal.
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              Regulation of p53 stability by Mdm2.

              The tumour-suppressor p53 is a short-lived protein that is maintained at low, often undetectable, levels in normal cells. Stabilization of the protein in response to an activating signal, such as DNA damage, results in a rapid rise in p53 levels and subsequent inhibition of cell growth. Tight regulation of p53 function is critical for normal cell growth and development, and one mechanism by which p53 function is controlled is through interaction with the Mdm2 protein. Mdm2 inhibits p53 cell-cycle arrest and apoptic functions and we show here that interaction with Mdm2 can also result in a large reduction in p53 protein levels through enhanced proteasome-dependent degradation. Endogenous levels of Mdm2 are sufficient to regulate p53 stability, and overexpression of Mdm2 can reduce the amount of endogenous p53. Because mdm2 is transcriptionally activated by p53, this degradative pathway may contribute to the maintenance of low p53 concentrations in normal cells. Furthermore, mechanisms regulating the Mdm2-induced degradation of p53 may play a role in controlling the extent and duration of the p53 response.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Cell Stress
                Cell Stress
                Cell Stress
                Cell Stress
                Cell Stress
                Shared Science Publishers OG
                2523-0204
                10 May 2018
                June 2018
                : 2
                : 6
                : 125-140
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Shanghai Key Laboratory for Tumor Microenvironment and Inflammation, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Cell Biology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, 280 South Chongqing Road, Shanghai, 200025, China.
                [2 ]Shanghai Key Laboratory for Prevention and Treatment of Bone and Joint Diseases with Integrated Chinese-Western Medicine, Shanghai Institute of Traumatology and Orthopedics, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, 197 Ruijin 2nd Road, Shanghai, 200025, China.
                Author notes

                Conflict of interest: There is no conflict of interest.

                Please cite this article as: Kai Yang, Jie Yang and Jing Yi ( 2018). Nucleolar Stress: hallmarks, sensing mechanism and diseases. Cell Stress 2(6): 125-140. doi: 10.15698/cst2018.06.139

                Article
                CST0177E136
                10.15698/cst2018.06.139
                6551681
                Copyright: © 2018 Yang et al.

                This is an open-access article released under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license, which allows the unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are acknowledged.

                Categories
                Review
                Nucleolar Stress
                Ribosome Biogenesis
                Npm1
                Translocation
                P53
                Mdm2
                Ribosomal Proteins

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