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      Blocking IL-1 in systemic inflammation

      editorial

      The Journal of Experimental Medicine

      The Rockefeller University Press

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          Abstract

          A growing number of systemic inflammatory diseases characterized in part by recurrent fevers, leukocytosis, anemia, and elevated acute phase proteins are linked to interleukin (IL)-1 activity since rapid and sustained resolution is observed upon specific blockade of IL-1 receptors. Rapid resolution of systemic and local inflammation is now also reported in systemic onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis (SoJIA). Loss of control of the secretion of IL-1β might be a common mechanism explaining the aberrant activity of IL-1 in these diseases.

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          Most cited references 20

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          Altered cytokine production in mice lacking P2X(7) receptors.

          The P2X(7) receptor (P2X(7)R) is an ATP-gated ion channel expressed by monocytes and macrophages. To directly address the role of this receptor in interleukin (IL)-1 beta post-translational processing, we have generated a P2X(7)R-deficient mouse line. P2X(7)R(-/-) macrophages respond to lipopolysaccharide and produce levels of cyclooxygenase-2 and pro-IL-1 beta comparable with those generated by wild-type cells. In response to ATP, however, pro-IL-1 beta produced by the P2X(7)R(-/-) cells is not externalized or activated by caspase-1. Nigericin, an alternate secretion stimulus, promotes release of 17-kDa IL-1 beta from P2X(7)R(-/-) macrophages. In response to in vivo lipopolysaccharide injection, both wild-type and P2X(7)R(-/-) animals display increases in peritoneal lavage IL-6 levels but no detectable IL-1. Subsequent ATP injection to wild-type animals promotes an increase in IL-1, which in turn leads to additional IL-6 production; similar increases did not occur in ATP-treated, LPS-primed P2X(7)R(-/-) animals. Absence of the P2X(7)R thus leads to an inability of peritoneal macrophages to release IL-1 in response to ATP. As a result of the IL-1 deficiency, in vivo cytokine signaling cascades are impaired in P2X(7)R-deficient animals. Together these results demonstrate that P2X(7)R activation can provide a signal that leads to maturation and release of IL-1 beta and initiation of a cytokine cascade.
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            NALPs: a novel protein family involved in inflammation.

            A newly discovered family of cytoplasmic proteins--the NALPs--has been implicated in the activation of caspase-1 by the Toll-like receptors (TLRs) during the cell's response to microbial infection. Like the structurally related apoptotic protease-activating factor-1 (APAF-1), which is responsible for the activation of caspase-9, the NALP1 protein forms a large, signal-induced multiprotein complex, the inflammasome, resulting in the activation of pro-inflammatory caspases.
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              Pyrin binds the PSTPIP1/CD2BP1 protein, defining familial Mediterranean fever and PAPA syndrome as disorders in the same pathway.

              Pyrin, the familial Mediterranean fever protein, is found in association with the cytoskeleton in myeloid/monocytic cells and modulates IL-1beta processing, NF-kappaB activation, and apoptosis. These effects are mediated in part through cognate interactions with the adaptor protein ASC, which shares an N-terminal motif with pyrin. We sought additional upstream regulators of inflammation by using pyrin as the bait in yeast two-hybrid assays. We now show that proline serine threonine phosphatase-interacting protein [PSTPIP1, or CD2-binding protein 1 (CD2BP1)], a tyrosine-phosphorylated protein involved in cytoskeletal organization, also interacts with pyrin. Recently, PSTPIP1/CD2BP1 mutations were shown to cause the syndrome of pyogenic arthritis, pyoderma gangrenosum, and acne (PAPA), a dominantly inherited autoinflammatory disorder mediated predominantly by granulocytes. Endogenous PSTPIP1/CD2BP1 and pyrin are coexpressed in monocytes and granulocytes and can be coimmunoprecipitated from THP-1 cells. The B box segment of pyrin was necessary and the B box/coiled-coil segment sufficient for this interaction, whereas the SH3 and coiled-coil domains of PSTPIP1/CD2BP1 were both necessary, but neither was sufficient, for pyrin binding. The Y344F PSTPIP1/CD2BP1 mutation, which blocks tyrosine phosphorylation, was associated with a marked reduction in pyrin binding in pervanadate-treated cells. PAPA-associated A230T and E250Q PSTPIP1/CD2BP1 mutations markedly increased pyrin binding as assayed by immunoprecipitation and, relative to WT, these mutants were hyperphosphorylated when coexpressed with c-Abl kinase. Consistent with the hypothesis that these mutations exert a dominant-negative effect on the previously reported activity of pyrin, we found increased IL-1beta production by peripheral blood leukocytes from a clinically active PAPA patient with the A230T PSTPIP1/CD2BP1 mutation and in cell lines transfected with both PAPA-associated mutants.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Exp Med
                The Journal of Experimental Medicine
                The Rockefeller University Press
                0022-1007
                1540-9538
                2 May 2005
                : 201
                : 9
                : 1355-1359
                Affiliations
                C.A.D. is at Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, CO 80262.
                Author notes

                CORRESPONDENCE C.A.D.: cdinare333@ 123456aol.com

                Article
                20050640
                10.1084/jem.20050640
                2213199
                15867089
                fee84233-69f6-48b3-b791-866f54a82ec4
                Copyright © 2005, The Rockefeller University Press
                Categories
                Commentary

                Medicine

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