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      The participation of the muscarinic receptors in the preoptic-anterior hypothalamic areas in the regulation of ovulation depends on the ovary

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          Abstract

          Background

          Muscarinic receptors (mAChRs) of the preoptic and anterior hypothalamus areas (POA-AHA) regulate ovulation in an asymmetric manner during the estrous cycle. The aims of the present study were to analyze the effects of a temporal blockade of mAChRs on either side of the POA-AHA performed in diestrus-2 rats on ovulation, the levels of estradiol, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) and the mechanisms involved in changes in ovulation.

          Methods

          Cyclic rats on diestrus-2 day were anesthetized and randomly assigned to the following groups: 1) microinjection of 1 μl of saline or atropine solution (62.5 ng) in the left or right POA-AHA; 2) removal (unilateral ovariectomty, ULO) of the left (L-ULO) or right (R-ULO) ovary, and 3) rats microinjected with atropine into the left or right POA-AHA plus L-ULO or R-ULO. The ovulation rate and the number of ova shed were measured during the predicted estrus, as well as the levels of estradiol, FSH and LH during the predicted proestrus and the effects of injecting synthetic LH-releasing hormone (LHRH) or estradiol benzoate (EB).

          Results

          Atropine in the left POA-AHA decreased both the ovulation rate and estradiol and LH levels on the afternoon of proestrus, also LHRH or EB injection restored ovulation. L- or R-ULO resulted in a lower ovulation rate and smaller number of ova shed, and only injection of LHRH restored ovulation. EB injection at diestrus-2 restored ovulation in animals with L-ULO only. The levels of estradiol, FSH and LH in rats with L-ULO were higher than in animals with unilateral laparotomy. In the group microinjected with atropine in the left POA-AHA, ovulation was similar to that in ULO rats. In contrast, atropine in the right POA-AHA of ULO rats blocked ovulation, an action that was restored by either LHRH or EB injection.

          Conclusions

          These results indicated that the removal of a single ovary at noon on diestrus-2 day perturbed the neuronal pathways regulating LH secretion, which was mediated by the muscarinic system connecting the right POA-AHA and the ovaries.

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          Most cited references 24

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          Estradiol-induced down-regulation of estrogen receptor. Effect of various modulators of protein synthesis and expression.

          Incubation of MCF-7 cells with estradiol (E2) down-regulates estrogen receptor (ER) resulting in a progressive reduction of the capacity of cells to concentrate selectively [3H]E2. Scatchard plot analysis failed to detect any transformation of residual receptors into peptides of lower binding affinity. [3H]Estrone gave an identical ER disappearance pattern with an ER half-life comprised between 2 and 3 h. A similar value was established by incubating the cells with [3H]tamoxifenaziridine ([3H]TAZ) for 1 h before the addition of excessive unlabeled E2 which induced ER-down regulation and impeded any further labeling of the residual receptors. Submission of the [3H]TAZ labeled cell extracts to SDS-PAGE revealed no progressive emergence of low molecular weight cleavage products of the receptor (< 67 kDa). Two inhibitors of protein kinases, H-7 at 40 microM and H-89 at 20 microM, failed to block the E2-induced ER down-regulation. On the contrary, the protein phosphatases 1 and 2A inhibitor, okadaic acid, was effective with concentrations higher than 0.1 microM indicating that a dephosphorylation mechanism was involved in this phenomenon. Cycloheximide (CHX) also significantly reduced the receptor decrease at concentrations higher than 1 microM. G-C specific intercalating agents [actinomycin D (AMD) and chromomycin A3 at 1 microM] also prevented ER disappearance; ethidium bromide (EB) and quinacrine were ineffective. AMD and CHX operated immediately after their addition to the medium indicating an inhibitory action on the synthesis of an RNA and/or a peptide with high turnover rate involved in ER decline. Moreover, AMD produced its suppressive effects under conditions impeding any labeling of newly synthetized receptors (i.e. [3H]TAZ with an excess of unlabeled E2) rejecting the possibility of an increasing ER production which may partially hamper its disappearance. Finally, E2-induced ER mRNA down-regulation was similarly abolished by AMD while EB and CHX were devoid of effect.
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            Effect of antibodies to 17beta-estradiol and progesterone on the estrous cycle of the rat.

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              Cholinergic afferents to gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons of the rat.

              Gonadotropin-releasing hormone-synthesizing neurons represent the final common pathway in the hypothalamic regulation of reproduction and their secretory activity is influenced by a variety of neurotransmitters and neuromodulators acting centrally in synaptic afferents to gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons. The present study examined the anatomical relationship of cholinergic neuronal pathways and gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons of the preoptic area. The immunocytochemical detection of choline acetyltransferase or vesicular acetylcholine transporter revealed a fine network of cholinergic fibers in this region. At the light microscopic level, the cholinergic axons formed appositions to the gonadotropin-releasing hormone immunoreactive cell bodies and dendrites. Results of electron microscopic studies confirmed the absence of glial interpositions in many of these neuronal contacts. Classical cholinergic synapses, which belonged to the asymmetric category, were only observed rarely on gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons. The lack of synaptic density in most contacts corroborates previous observations on the cholinergic system elsewhere in the brain. Further, it suggests a dominantly non-synaptic route also in this cholinergic neuronal communication. This study provides direct neuromorphological evidence for the involvement of the cholinergic system in the afferent neuronal regulation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons. The sources of cholinergic afferents and the receptorial mechanisms underlying this interaction will require further clarification.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                adriana_espinosav@hotmail.com
                angy1414@yahoo.com.mx
                arrieta777@mail.com
                marcar@unam.mx
                robertochavira2002@yahoo.com.mx
                rdcasala@hotmail.com
                1-52-55-56-23-07-71 , mecbloy@yahoo.com.mx
                Journal
                Reprod Biol Endocrinol
                Reprod. Biol. Endocrinol
                Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology : RB&E
                BioMed Central (London )
                1477-7827
                4 November 2016
                4 November 2016
                2016
                : 14
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Biology of Reproduction Research Unit, Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology, Facultad de Estudios Superiores Zaragoza, UNAM, AP 9-020, CP 15000 Mexico City, Mexico
                [2 ]Department of Basic Research, National Institute of Geriatrics, México City, Mexico
                [3 ]Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición “Salvador Zubirán”, México City, Mexico
                Article
                208
                10.1186/s12958-016-0208-3
                5095983
                27809846
                © The Author(s). 2016

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                Funding
                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100005739, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México;
                Award ID: UNAM-DGAPA-PAPIIT No. 220014-3
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: CONACYT
                Award ID: Grant number 236908
                Award Recipient :
                Categories
                Research
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2016

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