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      Clinical characteristics of 113 deceased patients with coronavirus disease 2019: retrospective study

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          Abstract

          Objective

          To delineate the clinical characteristics of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19) who died.

          Design

          Retrospective case series.

          Setting

          Tongji Hospital in Wuhan, China.

          Participants

          Among a cohort of 799 patients, 113 who died and 161 who recovered with a diagnosis of covid-19 were analysed. Data were collected until 28 February 2020.

          Main outcome measures

          Clinical characteristics and laboratory findings were obtained from electronic medical records with data collection forms.

          Results

          The median age of deceased patients (68 years) was significantly older than recovered patients (51 years). Male sex was more predominant in deceased patients (83; 73%) than in recovered patients (88; 55%). Chronic hypertension and other cardiovascular comorbidities were more frequent among deceased patients (54 (48%) and 16 (14%)) than recovered patients (39 (24%) and 7 (4%)). Dyspnoea, chest tightness, and disorder of consciousness were more common in deceased patients (70 (62%), 55 (49%), and 25 (22%)) than in recovered patients (50 (31%), 48 (30%), and 1 (1%)). The median time from disease onset to death in deceased patients was 16 (interquartile range 12.0-20.0) days. Leukocytosis was present in 56 (50%) patients who died and 6 (4%) who recovered, and lymphopenia was present in 103 (91%) and 76 (47%) respectively. Concentrations of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, creatinine, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, cardiac troponin I, N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide, and D-dimer were markedly higher in deceased patients than in recovered patients. Common complications observed more frequently in deceased patients included acute respiratory distress syndrome (113; 100%), type I respiratory failure (18/35; 51%), sepsis (113; 100%), acute cardiac injury (72/94; 77%), heart failure (41/83; 49%), alkalosis (14/35; 40%), hyperkalaemia (42; 37%), acute kidney injury (28; 25%), and hypoxic encephalopathy (23; 20%). Patients with cardiovascular comorbidity were more likely to develop cardiac complications. Regardless of history of cardiovascular disease, acute cardiac injury and heart failure were more common in deceased patients.

          Conclusion

          Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection can cause both pulmonary and systemic inflammation, leading to multi-organ dysfunction in patients at high risk. Acute respiratory distress syndrome and respiratory failure, sepsis, acute cardiac injury, and heart failure were the most common critical complications during exacerbation of covid-19.

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          Most cited references 3

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          Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China

          Summary Background A recent cluster of pneumonia cases in Wuhan, China, was caused by a novel betacoronavirus, the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV). We report the epidemiological, clinical, laboratory, and radiological characteristics and treatment and clinical outcomes of these patients. Methods All patients with suspected 2019-nCoV were admitted to a designated hospital in Wuhan. We prospectively collected and analysed data on patients with laboratory-confirmed 2019-nCoV infection by real-time RT-PCR and next-generation sequencing. Data were obtained with standardised data collection forms shared by WHO and the International Severe Acute Respiratory and Emerging Infection Consortium from electronic medical records. Researchers also directly communicated with patients or their families to ascertain epidemiological and symptom data. Outcomes were also compared between patients who had been admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) and those who had not. Findings By Jan 2, 2020, 41 admitted hospital patients had been identified as having laboratory-confirmed 2019-nCoV infection. Most of the infected patients were men (30 [73%] of 41); less than half had underlying diseases (13 [32%]), including diabetes (eight [20%]), hypertension (six [15%]), and cardiovascular disease (six [15%]). Median age was 49·0 years (IQR 41·0–58·0). 27 (66%) of 41 patients had been exposed to Huanan seafood market. One family cluster was found. Common symptoms at onset of illness were fever (40 [98%] of 41 patients), cough (31 [76%]), and myalgia or fatigue (18 [44%]); less common symptoms were sputum production (11 [28%] of 39), headache (three [8%] of 38), haemoptysis (two [5%] of 39), and diarrhoea (one [3%] of 38). Dyspnoea developed in 22 (55%) of 40 patients (median time from illness onset to dyspnoea 8·0 days [IQR 5·0–13·0]). 26 (63%) of 41 patients had lymphopenia. All 41 patients had pneumonia with abnormal findings on chest CT. Complications included acute respiratory distress syndrome (12 [29%]), RNAaemia (six [15%]), acute cardiac injury (five [12%]) and secondary infection (four [10%]). 13 (32%) patients were admitted to an ICU and six (15%) died. Compared with non-ICU patients, ICU patients had higher plasma levels of IL2, IL7, IL10, GSCF, IP10, MCP1, MIP1A, and TNFα. Interpretation The 2019-nCoV infection caused clusters of severe respiratory illness similar to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and was associated with ICU admission and high mortality. Major gaps in our knowledge of the origin, epidemiology, duration of human transmission, and clinical spectrum of disease need fulfilment by future studies. Funding Ministry of Science and Technology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, National Natural Science Foundation of China, and Beijing Municipal Science and Technology Commission.
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            NT-proBNP testing for diagnosis and short-term prognosis in acute destabilized heart failure: an international pooled analysis of 1256 patients: the International Collaborative of NT-proBNP Study.

            Experience with amino-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) testing for evaluation of dyspnoeic patients with suspected acute heart failure (HF) is limited to single-centre studies. We wished to establish broader standards for NT-proBNP testing in a study involving four sites in three continents. Differences in NT-proBNP levels among 1256 patients with and without acute HF and the relationship between NT-proBNP levels and HF symptoms were examined. Optimal cut-points for diagnosis and prognosis were identified and verified using bootstrapping and multi-variable logistic regression techniques. Seven hundred and twenty subjects (57.3%) had acute HF, whose median NT-proBNP was considerably higher than those without (4639 vs. 108 pg/mL, P 75, which yielded 90% sensitivity and 84% specificity for acute HF. An age-independent cut-point of 300 pg/mL had 98% negative predictive value to exclude acute HF. Among those with acute HF, a presenting NT-proBNP concentration >5180 pg/mL was strongly predictive of death by 76 days [odds ratio=5.2, 95% confidence interval (CI)=2.2-8.1, P<0.001]. In this multi-centre, international study, NT-proBNP testing was valuable for diagnostic evaluation and short-term prognosis estimation in dyspnoeic subjects with suspected or confirmed acute HF and should establish broader standards for use of the NT-proBNP in dyspnoeic patients.
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              Clinical and Laboratory Features of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Vis-À-Vis Onset of Fever

              Study objectives: Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a rapidly progressive disease caused by a novel coronavirus (CoV) infection. However, the disease presentation is nonspecific. The aim of this study was to define clearly the presentation, clinical progression, and laboratory data in a group of patients who had SARS. Design: Retrospective observational study. Setting: A tertiary care medical center with 51 negative-pressure isolation rooms in Taipei, Taiwan. Patients: Fifty-three patients with SARS seen between April 27 and June 16, 2003. Results: Fever (ie, temperature > 38°C) was the most common symptom (98%) and the earliest. When admitted to the isolation unit of the hospital for observation, most patients reported nonspecific symptoms associated with their fever. Only two patients with preexisting illnesses had cough on the same day the fever began. Eventually, 39 patients (74%) developed cough, beginning at a mean (± SD) time of 4.5 ± 1.9 days after fever onset, and 35 patients (66%) had diarrhea beginning at a mean time of 6.0 ± 3.3 days after fever onset. Thirty-one patients (59%) had abnormal findings on chest radiographs on hospital admission, and all but 1 patient (98%) eventually developed lung infiltrates that were consistent with pneumonia. The majority of patients (63%) first developed unifocal infiltrates at a mean time of 4.5 ± 2.1 days after fever onset, while in 37% of patients the initial infiltrates were multifocal, appearing at a mean time of 5.8 ± 1.3 days after fever onset. Common laboratory findings included lymphopenia (on hospital admission, 70%; during hospitalization, 95%), thrombocytopenia (on hospital admission, 28%; during hospitalization, 40%), elevated lactate dehydrogenase (on hospital admission, 58%; during hospitalization, 88%), creatine kinase (on hospital admission, 18%; during hospitalization, 32%), and aspartate aminotransferase or alanine aminotransferase levels (on hospital admission, 27%; during hospitalization, 62%). Throat or nasopharyngeal swab for SARS-CoV by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time PCR was positive in 40 of the 47 patients (85%) in whom the test was performed. Conclusions: None of the presenting symptoms or laboratory findings are pathognomonic for SARS. Even though cough developed in a majority of patients, it did not occur until later in the disease course, suggesting that a cough preceding or concurrent with the onset of fever is less likely to indicate SARS. While PCR for SARS-CoV appears to be the best early diagnostic test currently available, it is clear that better methods are needed to differentiate between SARS and non-SARS illness on initial presentation.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: doctor
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                Journal
                BMJ
                BMJ
                BMJ-UK
                bmj
                The BMJ
                BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.
                0959-8138
                1756-1833
                2020
                26 March 2020
                : 368
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department and Institute of Infectious Disease, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030, China
                [2 ]Department of Respiratory Disease, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China
                [3 ]Department of Emergency Medicine, Tongji Hospital, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China
                [4 ]Department of Paediatrics, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China
                Author notes
                Correspondence to: Q Ning qning@ 123456vip.sina.com
                Article
                chet055225
                10.1136/bmj.m1091
                7190011
                32217556
                © Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2019. Re-use permitted under CC BY-NC. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ.

                This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/.

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