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      Maternal corticosterone exposure in the mouse programs sex‐specific renal adaptations in the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system in 6‐month offspring

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          Abstract

          Short‐term maternal corticosterone (Cort) administration at mid‐gestation in the mouse reduces nephron number in both sexes while programming renal and cardiovascular dysfunction in 12‐month male but not female offspring. The renal renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system ( RAAS), functions in a sexually dimorphic manner to regulate both renal and cardiovascular physiology. This study aimed to identify if there are sex‐specific differences in basal levels of the intrarenal RAAS and to determine the impact of maternal Cort exposure on the RAAS in male and female offspring at 6 months of age. While intrarenal renin concentrations were higher in untreated females compared to untreated males, renal angiotensin II concentrations were higher in males than females. Furthermore, basal plasma aldosterone concentrations were greater in females than males. Cort exposed male but not female offspring had reduced water intake and urine excretion. Cort exposure increased renal renin concentrations and elevated mRNA expression of Ren1, Ace2, and Mas1 in male but not female offspring. In addition, male Cort exposed offspring had increased expression of the aldosterone receptor, Nr3c2 and renal sodium transporters. In contrast, Cort exposure increased Agtr1a mRNA levels in female offspring only. This study demonstrates that maternal Cort exposure alters key regulators of renal function in a sex‐specific manner at 6 months of life. These finding likely contribute to the disease outcomes in male but not female offspring in later life and highlights the importance of renal factors other than nephron number in the programming of renal and cardiovascular disease.

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          Most cited references 39

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          Glucocorticoids, prenatal stress and the programming of disease.

          An adverse foetal environment is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine and psychological disorders in adulthood. Exposure to stress and its glucocorticoid hormone mediators may underpin this association. In humans and in animal models, prenatal stress, excess exogenous glucocorticoids or inhibition of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (HSD2; the placental barrier to maternal glucocorticoids) reduces birth weight and causes hyperglycemia, hypertension, increased HPA axis reactivity, and increased anxiety-related behaviour. Molecular mechanisms that underlie the 'developmental programming' effects of excess glucocorticoids/prenatal stress include epigenetic changes in target gene promoters. In the case of the intracellular glucocorticoid receptor (GR), this alters tissue-specific GR expression levels, which has persistent and profound effects on glucocorticoid signalling in certain tissues (e.g. brain, liver, and adipose). Crucially, changes in gene expression persist long after the initial challenge, predisposing the individual to disease in later life. Intriguingly, the effects of a challenged pregnancy appear to be transmitted possibly to one or two subsequent generations, suggesting that these epigenetic effects persist. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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            Glucocorticoids and fetal programming part 1: Outcomes.

            Fetal development is a critical period for shaping the lifelong health of an individual. However, the fetus is susceptible to internal and external stimuli that can lead to adverse long-term health consequences. Glucocorticoids are an important developmental switch, driving changes in gene regulation that are necessary for normal growth and maturation. The fetal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is particularly susceptible to long-term programming by glucocorticoids; these effects can persist throughout the life of an organism. Dysfunction of the HPA axis as a result of fetal programming has been associated with impaired brain growth, altered behaviour and increased susceptibility to chronic disease (such as metabolic and cardiovascular disease). Moreover, the effects of glucocorticoid-mediated programming are evident in subsequent generations, and transmission of these changes can occur through both maternal and paternal lineages.
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              Maternal protein restriction suppresses the newborn renin-angiotensin system and programs adult hypertension in rats.

              Restriction of maternal protein intake during rat pregnancy produces offspring that are hypertensive in adulthood, but the mechanisms are not well understood. Our purpose was to determine whether this adult hypertension could be programmed during development by suppression of the fetal/newborn renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and a consequent reduction in nephron number. Pregnant rats were fed a normal protein (19%, NP) or low-protein (8.5%, LP) diet throughout gestation. Birth weight was reduced by 13% (p < 0.0005), and the kidney/body weight ratio was reduced in LP pups. Renal renin mRNA levels were significantly reduced in newborn LP pups; renal renin concentration and renin immunostaining were suppressed. Renal tissue angiotensin II levels were also suppressed in newborn LP (0.079 +/- 0.002 ng/mg, LP versus 0.146 +/- 0.016 ng/mg, NP, p < 0.01). Mean arterial pressure in conscious, chronically instrumented adult offspring (21 wk) was higher in LP (135 +/- 1 mm Hg, LP versus 126 +/- 1 mm Hg, NP, p < 0.00007), and GFR normalized to kidney weight was reduced in LP (p < 0.04). The number of glomeruli per kidney was lower in adult LP offspring (21,567 +/- 1,694, LP versus 28,917 +/- 2,342, NP, p < 0.03), and individual glomerular volume was higher (1.81 +/- 0.16 10(6) microm(3), LP versus 1.11 +/- 0.10 10(6) microm(3), NP, p < 0.005); the total volume of all glomeruli per kidney was not significantly different. Thus, perinatal protein restriction in the rat suppresses the newborn intrarenal RAS and leads to a reduced number of glomeruli, glomerular enlargement, and hypertension in the adult.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Physiol Rep
                Physiol Rep
                10.1002/(ISSN)2051-817X
                PHY2
                physreports
                Physiological Reports
                John Wiley and Sons Inc. (Hoboken )
                2051-817X
                27 April 2016
                April 2016
                : 4
                : 8 ( doiID: 10.1111/phy2.2016.4.issue-8 )
                Affiliations
                [ 1 ] School of Biomedical ScienceThe University of Queensland St LuciaAustralia
                Author notes
                [* ] Correspondence

                Karen Moritz, School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Queensland, 4072, Australia.

                Tel: 61‐7‐3365‐4598

                Fax: 61‐7‐3365‐1299

                E‐mail: k.moritz@ 123456uq.edu.au

                Article
                PHY212754
                10.14814/phy2.12754
                4848720
                27122048
                © 2016 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

                This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Pages: 12
                Product
                Funding
                Funded by: University of Queensland
                Funded by: NHMRC Senior Research Fellowship
                Categories
                Renal Conditions, Disorders and Treatments
                Kidney
                Maternal, Fetal and Neonatal Physiology
                Ageing and Degeneration
                Cellular and Molecular Endocrinology
                Original Research
                Original Research
                Custom metadata
                2.0
                phy212754
                April 2016
                Converter:WILEY_ML3GV2_TO_NLMPMC version:4.9.1 mode:remove_FC converted:16.06.2016

                sex specific, fetal programming, kidney, ras

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