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      A new perspective on the pathogenesis of chronic renal disease in captive cheetahs ( Acinonyx jubatus)

      1 , 2 , * , 2 , 2

      PLoS ONE

      Public Library of Science

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          Abstract

          The sustainability of captive cheetah populations is limited by high mortality due to chronic renal disease. This necropsy study, conducted on 243 captive cheetahs from one institution, investigated the relationships between focal palatine erosions, gastritis, enterocolitis, glomerulosclerosis, chronic renal infarcts, renal cortical and medullary fibrosis, and renal medullary amyloidosis at death. Associations between the individual renal lesions and death due to chronic renal disease and comparisons of lesion prevalence between captive bred and wild born and between normal and king coated cheetahs were also assessed. All lesions were significantly positively correlated with age at death. Renal medullary fibrosis was the only lesion associated with the likelihood of death being due to chronic renal disease, and cheetahs with this lesion were younger, on average, than cheetahs with other renal lesions. Alimentary tract lesions were not associated with amyloidosis. All lesions, except for palatine erosions, were more common in wild born than in captive bred cheetahs; the former were older at death than the latter. Having a king coat had no clear effect on disease prevalence. These results suggest that age and renal medullary fibrosis are the primary factors influencing the pathogenesis of chronic renal disease in captive cheetahs. Apart from amyloidosis, these findings are analogous to those described in chronic renal disease in domestic cats, which is postulated to result primarily from repetitive hypoxic injury of renal tubules, mediated by age and stress. Cheetahs may be particularly susceptible to acute renal tubular injury due to their propensity for stress and their extended life span in captivity, as well as their adaptation for fecundity (rather than longevity) and adrenaline-mediated high speed prey chases. The presence of chronic renal disease in subadult cheetahs suggests that prevention, identification and mitigation of stress are critical to the successful prevention of chronic renal disease in captive cheetahs.

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          Most cited references 70

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          Somatotropic signaling: trade-offs between growth, reproductive development, and longevity.

          Growth hormone (GH) is a key determinant of postnatal growth and plays an important role in the control of metabolism and body composition. Surprisingly, deficiency in GH signaling delays aging and remarkably extends longevity in laboratory mice. In GH-deficient and GH-resistant animals, the "healthspan" is also extended with delays in cognitive decline and in the onset of age-related disease. The role of hormones homologous to insulin-like growth factor (IGF, an important mediator of GH actions) in the control of aging and lifespan is evolutionarily conserved from worms to mammals with some homologies extending to unicellular yeast. The combination of reduced GH, IGF-I, and insulin signaling likely contributes to extended longevity in GH or GH receptor-deficient organisms. Diminutive body size and reduced fecundity of GH-deficient and GH-resistant mice can be viewed as trade-offs for extended longevity. Mechanisms responsible for delayed aging of GH-related mutants include enhanced stress resistance and xenobiotic metabolism, reduced inflammation, improved insulin signaling, and various metabolic adjustments. Pathological excess of GH reduces life expectancy in men as well as in mice, and GH resistance or deficiency provides protection from major age-related diseases, including diabetes and cancer, in both species. However, there is yet no evidence of increased longevity in GH-resistant or GH-deficient humans, possibly due to non-age-related deaths. Results obtained in GH-related mutant mice provide striking examples of mutations of a single gene delaying aging, reducing age-related disease, and extending lifespan in a mammal and providing novel experimental systems for the study of mechanisms of aging.
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            Structural and Functional Changes With the Aging Kidney.

            Senescence or normal physiologic aging portrays the expected age-related changes in the kidney as compared to a disease that occurs in some but not all individuals. The microanatomical structural changes of the kidney with older age include a decreased number of functional glomeruli from an increased prevalence of nephrosclerosis (arteriosclerosis, glomerulosclerosis, and tubular atrophy with interstitial fibrosis), and to some extent, compensatory hypertrophy of remaining nephrons. Among the macroanatomical structural changes, older age associates with smaller cortical volume, larger medullary volume until middle age, and larger and more numerous kidney cysts. Among carefully screened healthy kidney donors, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) declines at a rate of 6.3 mL/min/1.73 m(2) per decade. There is reason to be concerned that the elderly are being misdiagnosed with CKD. Besides this expected kidney function decline, the lowest risk of mortality is at a GFR of ≥75 mL/min/1.73 m(2) for age <55 years but at a lower GFR of 45 to 104 mL/min/1.73 m(2) for age ≥65 years. Changes with normal aging are still of clinical significance. The elderly have less kidney functional reserve when they do actually develop CKD, and they are at higher risk for acute kidney injury.
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              Stress Hormones, Th1/Th2 patterns, Pro/Anti-inflammatory Cytokines and Susceptibility to Disease.

              In general, stress has been regarded as immunosuppressive. Recent evidence, however, indicates that acute, subacute or chronic stress might suppress cellular immunity but boost humoral immunity. This is mediated by a differential effect of stress hormones, the glucocorticoids and catecholamines, on T helper 1 (Th1)/Th2 cells and type 1/type 2 cytokine production. Furthermore, acute stress might induce pro-inflammatory activities in certain tissues through neural activation of the peripheral corticotropin-releasing hormone-mast cell-histamine axis. Through the above mechanisms, stress might influence the onset and/or course of infectious, autoimmune/inflammatory, allergic and neoplastic diseases.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Data curationRole: Formal analysisRole: Funding acquisitionRole: InvestigationRole: MethodologyRole: Project administrationRole: ResourcesRole: Writing – original draftRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: SupervisionRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: MethodologyRole: Project administrationRole: SupervisionRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS One
                PLoS ONE
                plos
                plosone
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, CA USA )
                1932-6203
                7 March 2018
                2018
                : 13
                : 3
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Department of Research and Scientific Services, National Zoological Gardens of South Africa, Pretoria, South Africa
                [2 ] Department of Paraclinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Onderstepoort, South Africa
                The University of Tokyo, JAPAN
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

                Article
                PONE-D-17-36675
                10.1371/journal.pone.0194114
                5841817
                29513736
                © 2018 Mitchell et al

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 3, Pages: 16
                Product
                Funding
                This work was funded jointly by the Ann van Dyk Cheetah Centre (AvDCC) and annual core operational funds from the National Zoological Gardens of South Africa, a facility of the National Research Foundation. The funders had no role in the study design, analysis or preparation of the manuscript. Ms Ann van Dyk and the staff of the AvDCC participated in sample and data collection and the decision to publish.
                Categories
                Research Article
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Organisms
                Eukaryota
                Animals
                Vertebrates
                Amniotes
                Mammals
                Cats
                Cheetahs
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Developmental Biology
                Fibrosis
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Diagnostic Medicine
                Signs and Symptoms
                Amyloidosis
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Pathology and Laboratory Medicine
                Signs and Symptoms
                Amyloidosis
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Gastroenterology and Hepatology
                Gastritis
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Nephrology
                Renal Diseases
                Research and Analysis Methods
                Mathematical and Statistical Techniques
                Statistical Methods
                Generalized Linear Model
                Physical Sciences
                Mathematics
                Statistics (Mathematics)
                Statistical Methods
                Generalized Linear Model
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Pathology and Laboratory Medicine
                Pathogenesis
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Organisms
                Eukaryota
                Animals
                Vertebrates
                Amniotes
                Mammals
                Cats
                Custom metadata
                All relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information files.

                Uncategorized

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