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      Visual Field Outcomes for the Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension Treatment Trial (IIHTT)

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          The Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension Treatment Trial (IIHTT) showed that acetazolamide provided a modest, significant improvement in mean deviation (MD). Here, we further analyze visual field changes over the 6-month study period.


          Of 165 subjects with mild visual loss in the IIHTT, 125 had perimetry at baseline and 6 months. We evaluated pointwise linear regression of visual sensitivity versus time to classify test locations in the worst MD (study) eye as improving or not; pointwise changes from baseline to month 6 in decibels; and clinical consensus of change from baseline to 6 months.


          The average study eye had 36 of 52 test locations with improving sensitivity over 6 months using pointwise linear regression, but differences between the acetazolamide and placebo groups were not significant. Pointwise results mostly improved in both treatment groups with the magnitude of the mean change within groups greatest and statistically significant around the blind spot and the nasal area, especially in the acetazolamide group. The consensus classification of visual field change from baseline to 6 months in the study eye yielded percentages (acetazolamide, placebo) of 7.2% and 17.5% worse, 35.1% and 31.7% with no change, and 56.1% and 50.8% improved; group differences were not statistically significant.


          In the IIHTT, compared to the placebo group, the acetazolamide group had a significant pointwise improvement in visual field function, particularly in the nasal and pericecal areas; the latter is likely due to reduction in blind spot size related to improvement in papilledema. ( number, NCT01003639.)

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          Most cited references 15

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          Effect of acetazolamide on visual function in patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension and mild visual loss: the idiopathic intracranial hypertension treatment trial.

          Acetazolamide is commonly used to treat idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH), but there is insufficient information to establish an evidence base for its use. To determine whether acetazolamide is beneficial in improving vision when added to a low-sodium weight reduction diet in patients with IIH and mild visual loss. Multicenter, randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled study of acetazolamide in 165 participants with IIH and mild visual loss who received a low-sodium weight-reduction diet. Participants were enrolled at 38 academic and private practice sites in North America from March 2010 to November 2012 and followed up for 6 months (last visit in June 2013). All participants met the modified Dandy criteria for IIH and had a perimetric mean deviation (PMD) between -2 dB and -7 dB. The mean age was 29 years and all but 4 participants were women. Low-sodium weight-reduction diet plus the maximally tolerated dosage of acetazolamide (up to 4 g/d) or matching placebo for 6 months. The planned primary outcome variable was the change in PMD from baseline to month 6 in the most affected eye, as measured by Humphrey Field Analyzer. Perimetric mean deviation is a measure of global visual field loss (mean deviation from age-corrected normal values), with a range of 2 to -32 dB; larger negative values indicate greater vision loss. Secondary outcome variables included changes in papilledema grade, quality of life (Visual Function Questionnaire 25 [VFQ-25] and 36-Item Short Form Health Survey), headache disability, and weight at month 6. The mean improvement in PMD was greater with acetazolamide (1.43 dB, from -3.53 dB at baseline to -2.10 dB at month 6; n = 86) than with placebo (0.71 dB, from -3.53 dB to -2.82 dB; n = 79); the difference was 0.71 dB (95% CI, 0 to 1.43 dB; P = .050). Mean improvements in papilledema grade (acetazolamide: -1.31, from 2.76 to 1.45; placebo: -0.61, from 2.76 to 2.15; treatment effect, -0.70; 95% CI, -0.99 to -0.41; P < .001) and vision-related quality of life as measured by the National Eye Institute VFQ-25 (acetazolamide: 8.33, from 82.97 to 91.30; placebo: 1.98, from 82.97 to 84.95; treatment effect, 6.35; 95% CI, 2.22 to 10.47; P = .003) and its 10-item neuro-ophthalmic supplement (acetazolamide: 9.82, from 75.45 to 85.27; placebo: 1.59, from 75.45 to 77.04; treatment effect, 8.23; 95% CI, 3.89 to 12.56; P < .001) were also observed with acetazolamide. Participants assigned to acetazolamide also experienced a reduction in weight (acetazolamide: -7.50 kg, from 107.72 kg to 100.22 kg; placebo: -3.45 kg, from 107.72 kg to 104.27 kg; treatment effect, -4.05 kg, 95% CI, -6.27 to -1.83 kg; P < .001). In patients with IIH and mild visual loss, the use of acetazolamide with a low-sodium weight-reduction diet compared with diet alone resulted in modest improvement in visual field function. The clinical importance of this improvement remains to be determined. Identifier: NCT01003639.
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            Idiopathic intracranial hypertension. A prospective study of 50 patients.

            Management of patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) should be based on the presence and progression of visual loss. To characterize the clinical course of IIH more completely, we monitored the clinical status, especially visual function, in 50 consecutive newly-diagnosed patients over a period of 2 to 39 months (average follow-up 12.4 months). The mean age at onset of symptoms was 31 (range 11-58) yrs; 46 (92%) were women and 47 (94%) were obese (mean weight 90 kg). Common symptoms were headache (92%), transient visual obscurations (72%) and intracranial noises (60%); 13 of the patients (26%) initially had complaints of sustained visual loss. There was visual loss as determined by Goldmann perimetry in 96% and by automated perimetry in 92%. Contrast sensitivity testing was abnormal in 50% and Snellen acuity in 22%. Two patients (4%) became blind in both eyes. The Goldmann visual field grade improved in 60% of patients but visual function deteriorated in 5 (10%). Deterioration of visual field grade was significantly associated only with weight gain during the year before diagnosis. Visual loss in patients with IIH is common and is often reversible. Patients should be evaluated by perimetry using an appropriate strategy and contrast sensitivity testing, along with careful examination of the optic discs.
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              Classification of visual field abnormalities in the ocular hypertension treatment study.

              (1) To develop a classification system for visual field (VF) abnormalities, (2) to determine interreader and test-retest agreement, and (3) to determine the frequency of various VF defects in the Ocular Hypertension Treatment Study. Follow-up VFs are performed every 6 months and are monitored for abnormality, indicated by a glaucoma hemifield test result or a corrected pattern SD outside the normal limits. As of January 1, 2002, 1636 patients had 2509 abnormal VFs. Three readers independently classified each hemifield using a classification system developed at the VF reading center. A subset (50%) of the abnormal VFs was reread to evaluate test-retest reader agreement. A mean deviation was calculated separately for the hemifields as an index to the severity of VF loss. A 97% interreader hemifield agreement. The average hemifield classification agreement (between any 2 of 3 readers) for 5018 hemifields was 97% and 88% for the 1266 abnormal VFs that were reread (agreement between the first and second classifications). Glaucomatous patterns of loss (partial arcuate, paracentral, and nasal step defects) composed the majority of VF defects. The Ocular Hypertension Treatment Study classification system has high reproducibility and provides a possible nomenclature for characterizing VF defects.

                Author and article information

                Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci
                Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci
                Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
                The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology
                1 March 2016
                March 2016
                : 57
                : 3
                : 805-812
                [1 ]Department of Neurology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, United States
                [2 ]Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, United States
                [3 ]Department of Ophthalmology and Vision Science, University of California Davis, Davis, California, United States
                [4 ]Department of Biostatistics, College of Public Health, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, United States
                [5 ]Departments of Biostatistics and Computational Biology and Neurology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York, United States
                [6 ]Department of Neurology and Neurological Surgery, University of California Davis, Davis, California, United States
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Michael Wall, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Department of Neurology, 200 Hawkins Drive, Iowa City, IA 52242-1091, USA; michael-wall@ .
                iovs-57-02-15 IOVS-15-18626

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

                Eye Movements, Strabismus, Amblyopia and Neuro-Ophthalmology


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