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      Towards thermodynamics of universal horizons in Einstein-{\ae}ther theory

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          Abstract

          Holography grew out of black hole thermodynamics, which relies on the causal structure and general covariance of general relativity. In Einstein-{\ae}ther theory, a generally covariant theory with a dynamical timelike unit vector, every solution breaks local Lorentz invariance, thereby grossly modifying the causal structure of gravity. However, there are still absolute causal boundaries, called "universal horizons", which are not Killing horizons yet obey a first law of black hole mechanics and must have an entropy if they do not violate a generalized second law. We couple a scalar field to the timelike vector and show via the tunneling approach that the universal horizon radiates as a blackbody at a fixed temperature, even if the scalar field equations also violate local Lorentz invariance. This suggests that the class of holographic theories may be much broader than currently assumed.

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          Black Hole Entropy is Noether Charge

          We consider a general, classical theory of gravity in \(n\) dimensions, arising from a diffeomorphism invariant Lagrangian. In any such theory, to each vector field, \(\xi^a\), on spacetime one can associate a local symmetry and, hence, a Noether current \((n-1)\)-form, \({\bf j}\), and (for solutions to the field equations) a Noether charge \((n-2)\)-form, \({\bf Q}\). Assuming only that the theory admits stationary black hole solutions with a bifurcate Killing horizon, and that the canonical mass and angular momentum of solutions are well defined at infinity, we show that the first law of black hole mechanics always holds for perturbations to nearby stationary black hole solutions. The quantity playing the role of black hole entropy in this formula is simply \(2 \pi\) times the integral over \(\Sigma\) of the Noether charge \((n-2)\)-form associated with the horizon Killing field, normalized so as to have unit surface gravity. Furthermore, we show that this black hole entropy always is given by a local geometrical expression on the horizon of the black hole. We thereby obtain a natural candidate for the entropy of a dynamical black hole in a general theory of gravity. Our results show that the validity of the ``second law" of black hole mechanics in dynamical evolution from an initially stationary black hole to a final stationary state is equivalent to the positivity of a total Noether flux, and thus may be intimately related to the positive energy properties of the theory. The relationship between the derivation of our formula for black hole entropy and the derivation via ``Euclidean methods" also is explained.
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            Quantum Gravity at a Lifshitz Point

            We present a candidate quantum field theory of gravity with dynamical critical exponent equal to z=3 in the UV. (As in condensed matter systems, z measures the degree of anisotropy between space and time.) This theory, which at short distances describes interacting nonrelativistic gravitons, is power-counting renormalizable in 3+1 dimensions. When restricted to satisfy the condition of detailed balance, this theory is intimately related to topologically massive gravity in three dimensions, and the geometry of the Cotton tensor. At long distances, this theory flows naturally to the relativistic value z=1, and could therefore serve as a possible candidate for a UV completion of Einstein's general relativity or an infrared modification thereof. The effective speed of light, the Newton constant and the cosmological constant all emerge from relevant deformations of the deeply nonrelativistic z=3 theory at short distances.
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              Gravity with a dynamical preferred frame

              We study a generally covariant model in which local Lorentz invariance is broken "spontaneously" by a dynamical unit timelike vector field \(u^a\)---the "aether". Such a model makes it possible to study the gravitational and cosmological consequences of preferred frame effects, such as ``variable speed of light" or high frequency dispersion, while preserving a generally covariant metric theory of gravity. In this paper we restrict attention to an action for an effective theory of the aether which involves only the antisymmetrized derivative \(\nabla_{[a}u_{b]}\). Without matter this theory is equivalent to a sector of the Einstein-Maxwell-charged dust system. The aether has two massless transverse excitations, and the solutions of the model include all vacuum solutions of general relativity (as well as other solutions). However, the aether generally develops gradient singularities which signal a breakdown of this effective theory. Including the symmetrized derivative in the action for the aether field may cure this problem.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                2012-10-17
                2013-02-14
                Article
                10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.071301
                1210.4940
                ff0504e6-283b-4154-b0bd-6d9be278464e

                http://arxiv.org/licenses/nonexclusive-distrib/1.0/

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                Additional discussions and references added, Version matches that to be published in PRL
                hep-th gr-qc

                General relativity & Quantum cosmology,High energy & Particle physics
                General relativity & Quantum cosmology, High energy & Particle physics

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