1
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: not found
      • Article: not found

      Autoantibodies against aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase: novel diagnostic marker for type 1 diabetes mellitus

      , , , , , , ,

      Biomarkers

      Informa UK Limited

      Read this article at

      ScienceOpenPublisher
      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 30

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          The cation efflux transporter ZnT8 (Slc30A8) is a major autoantigen in human type 1 diabetes.

          Type 1 diabetes (T1D) results from progressive loss of pancreatic islet mass through autoimmunity targeted at a diverse, yet limited, series of molecules that are expressed in the pancreatic beta cell. Identification of these molecular targets provides insight into the pathogenic process, diagnostic assays, and potential therapeutic agents. Autoantigen candidates were identified from microarray expression profiling of human and rodent pancreas and islet cells and screened with radioimmunoprecipitation assays using new-onset T1D and prediabetic sera. A high-ranking candidate, the zinc transporter ZnT8 (Slc30A8), was targeted by autoantibodies in 60-80% of new-onset T1D compared with <2% of controls and <3% type 2 diabetic and in up to 30% of patients with other autoimmune disorders with a T1D association. ZnT8 antibodies (ZnTA) were found in 26% of T1D subjects classified as autoantibody-negative on the basis of existing markers [glutamate decarboxylase (GADA), protein tyrosine phosphatase IA2 (IA2A), antibodies to insulin (IAA), and islet cytoplasmic autoantibodies (ICA)]. Individuals followed from birth to T1D showed ZnT8A as early as 2 years of age and increasing levels and prevalence persisting to disease onset. ZnT8A generally emerged later than GADA and IAA in prediabetes, although not in a strict order. The combined measurement of ZnT8A, GADA, IA2A, and IAA raised autoimmunity detection rates to 98% at disease onset, a level that approaches that needed to detect prediabetes in a general pediatric population. The combination of bioinformatics and molecular engineering used here will potentially generate other diabetes autoimmunity markers and is also broadly applicable to other autoimmune disorders.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Editing-defective tRNA synthetase causes protein misfolding and neurodegeneration.

            Misfolded proteins are associated with several pathological conditions including neurodegeneration. Although some of these abnormally folded proteins result from mutations in genes encoding disease-associated proteins (for example, repeat-expansion diseases), more general mechanisms that lead to misfolded proteins in neurons remain largely unknown. Here we demonstrate that low levels of mischarged transfer RNAs (tRNAs) can lead to an intracellular accumulation of misfolded proteins in neurons. These accumulations are accompanied by upregulation of cytoplasmic protein chaperones and by induction of the unfolded protein response. We report that the mouse sticky mutation, which causes cerebellar Purkinje cell loss and ataxia, is a missense mutation in the editing domain of the alanyl-tRNA synthetase gene that compromises the proofreading activity of this enzyme during aminoacylation of tRNAs. These findings demonstrate that disruption of translational fidelity in terminally differentiated neurons leads to the accumulation of misfolded proteins and cell death, and provide a novel mechanism underlying neurodegeneration.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              A human aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase as a regulator of angiogenesis.

              Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases catalyze the first step of protein synthesis. It was shown recently that human tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase (TyrRS) can be split into two fragments having distinct cytokine activities, thereby linking protein synthesis to cytokine signaling pathways. Tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase (TrpRS) is a close homologue of TyrRS. A natural fragment, herein designated as mini TrpRS, was shown by others to be produced by alternative splicing. Production of this fragment is reported to be stimulated by IFN-gamma, a cytokine that also stimulates production of angiostatic factors. Mini TrpRS is shown here to be angiostatic in a mammalian cell culture system, the chicken embryo, and two independent angiogenesis assays in the mouse. The full-length enzyme is inactive in the same assays. Thus, protein synthesis may be linked to the regulation of angiogenesis by a natural fragment of TrpRS.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                Biomarkers
                Biomarkers
                Informa UK Limited
                1354-750X
                1366-5804
                January 25 2010
                June 2010
                April 30 2010
                June 2010
                : 15
                : 4
                : 358-366
                Article
                10.3109/13547501003777823
                © 2010

                Comments

                Comment on this article